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470637 1 






Jntroiiuttom |!rcfac* 



Minister ) St, Gabriel Churchy Montreal. 

Deut. vi. ti, 7.— "Ami these words, which I command thee this day, shall I 
in thine heart •, and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children 
andshalt. talk of them wheu thou sittest in thine house, and when tho 
walkeat hy the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou rise) 




232 St. James Street. 


Queen's University at Kingston 











OF the Holy Scrip- 
Of God and of the 

Holy Trinity. 
Of God's Eternal De- 



Of Creation. 


Of Providence. 


Of the Fall of Man, of 

Sin, and of the Pun- 

ishment thereof. 


Of God's Covenant 

with Man. 


Of Christ the Medi- 



Of Free Will. 


Of Effectual Calling. 


Of Justification. 


Of Adoption. 


Of Sanctiflcation. 


Of Saving Faith. 


Of Repentance unto 



Of Good Works. 


Of the Perseverance of 

the Saints. 


Of Assurance of Grace 

and Salvation. 


Of the Law of God. 















Of Christian Liber- 
ty, and Liberty of 

Of Religious Wor- 
ship, and the Sab- 

Of lawful Oaths and 

Of the Civil Magi- 

Of Marriage and 

Of the Church. 

Of Communion of 

Of the Sacraments. 

Of Baptism. 

Of the Lord's Sup- 

Of Church Cen- 

Of Synods and 

Of the State of Men 
after Death, and 
of the Resurrec- 
tion of the Dead . 

Of the last Judg- 


|UrA]S T Y of our ministers must, with me, have 
iTX felt a wish that there was a cheap and handy 
edition of the " Confession of Faith," for the use of 
their Bible classes and the adult portion of their con- 
gregations, in some such separate form as that in 
which the Shorter Catechism has been so often issued 
for the instruction of the children of the church. 
Every faithful servant of the Lord, knowing the short- 
comings of the men of his own age, is apt to think his 
contemporaries worse than any generation that went 
before them; hence we might truly enough echo the 
complaint of Mr. Thomas Manton, in his separate 
epistle, and the lament of the xliv. divines who with 
him signed the address of the first published edition 
of the Confession, as to the decay of intelligence and 
piety in their day. It may be doubted whether the 
members and adherents of the Presbyterian Church in 
Canada know this authorized summary of the doctrines 
of the Bible, as familiarly as it deserves to be known ; 
and it is not unreasonable to suppose that they would 
have a more intimate acquaintance with it to-day, very 
much to their advantage, if it had been within their 
reach in a simple form, like that in which it is pre- 
sented in this edition. An objection has been taken 
to it that it is too bulky, and that it is expecting too 
much of the office-bearers of the Church to pledge 



them to the contents of this document. But when 
the bare propositions of the Confession, as they are 
now presented, are taken into account, our Subordinate 
Standard is seen to be not so extensive after all. It 
does not cover many pages. In former editions the 
prSof-texts were given at length, and they occupied 
more space than the propositions which they were 
cited to support. There were advantages in this, as 
the divines, who issued the first edition, with the 
proofs extended, showed ; but it may be questioned 
whether, after all, it is not as well that the student of 
the Confession should, in every case, find for himself, in 
his Bible, the text cited. Besides, in constructing the 
Confession and the other documents which they framed, 
the Westminster Assembly drew up the propositions 
first, and afterwards annexed the texts, moved thereto 
by the Parliament. Neither the xxxix. Articles, nor 
any of the Ancient Creeds had scripture proofs 
attached. It is true, that the second of the rules laid 
down by Parliament for the guidance of the Assembly 
stipulated, " What any man undertakes to prove as a 
necessary truth in religion he shall make good from 
the Holy Scriptures " ; but at first the members of the 
Assembly regarded this rule as only applicable to the 
debates, not to the conclusions which they formulated. 
At all events, the Confession seems a much less for- 
midable treatise to undertake to read, with the proofs 

This doctrinal standard of the Presbyterian Church 
has been attacked on other grounds than its length ; 
but any attack made upon it would have produced [ 

little impression, if the contents of the document were 
familiarly known. The doctrines of Grace stand out 
prominently in the Confession, but not more promi- 
nently than in the writings of the Apostle Paul ; and 
the several parts are bound together by a chain of in- 
exorable logic, so that when the objector is put to it, 
he finds it difficult to point to any part that would be 
omitted, without marring the design of the whole. 
But while it contains little that could be well left out, 
it lacks some of the matters on which it could, perhaps, 
be desirable to have an authoritative utterance. It is 
chiefly taken up with settling points on which pro- 
fessing Christians have differed. It affords us little 
help, for instance, in defining the relations between 
Science and Eevelation. And yet all those previous 
questions, which men are raising in our day, were 
dealt with at an early period in the history of Christ- 
ianity. Heathen naturalism, championed by Julian, 
Celsus, Porphyry, and Hypatia, was overcome by 
supernaturalism, in the hands of Christian champions; 
and it would have been well that the weapons they 
used so effectively had been handed down to us. 

It was the Scottish General Assembly and Estates 
of Parliament that designated this treatise as the 
"Confession of Faith." The title by which it went in 
England was, "Articles of Eeligion, approved and 
passed by both Houses of Parliament, after advice had 
with an Assembly of Divines called together by them 
for that purpose." It is not a sectarian document, 
although it has been adopted by the Presbyterian 
Church, all over the world, as its Subordinate Stan- 

dard. The divines composing the Westminster As- 
sembly had received Episcopal ordination ; and the 
members of Parliament, who sat with them, were in 
communion with the Church, as it had been up to that 
time constituted. During the sittings of the Assembly, 
the course of the national history was such as to set 
men's minds free from traditional views. Every in- 
stitution was in that age thrown into the crucible of a 
.severe logic ; and very considerable differences arose 
among the members, on questions of Church Govern- 
ment and the Order of Public Worship. But there 
was substantial agreement among the Episcopalian, 
Presbyterian and Independent sympathizers in the 
Assembly, in the doctrinal part of their work, that on 
w T hich their reputation chiefly rests ; although there 
was scarcely a proposition that was not debated, and 
but few of them escaped dissent from at least one or 
two members, as the recently published Minutes of the 
Assembly show. Clarendon, an extreme Eoyalist and 
High-Churchman, on the one hand, and Milton, a Ke- 
publican and Independent, on the other, affected to 
despise the members of the Assembly, as men entitled 
to little consideration. Prof. Masson, in his life of 
Milton, has been at pains to establish, however, that 
they were almost all men of quality and position. But 
apart from this point, which he has proved, their work 
has shown that they were not unworthy contempo- 
raries of even the author of " Paradise Lost." It might 
be fairly enough maintained, indeed, that the " Confes- 
sion of Faith," which owe hears sometimes severely 
criticized, is the greatest product of the greatest age 


of the greatest country of which history informs us. 
To be impressed with the remarkable literary qualities 
— the clearness, the scientific precision, and the mode- 
ration of this treatise, all that we have to do is to read 
it in the light of the discussions which led up to the 
conclusions embraced in it, and compare its utterances 
with those of the Synod of Dort or of the Council of 
Trent. The gentlemen composing the Assembly were 
the elect of the English people — the Parliamentarians 
sitting in it being among the most eminent members 
of that Long Parliament which Macaulay has charac- 
terized as the greatest that has ever sat in West- 
minster Hall — and the divines being those who had an 
established reputation in the several counties of Eng- 
land for learning, piety and prudence. The debates 
in which they engaged show that they were men of 
high attainments, thoroughly familiar with the sources 
of Theology — the Scriptures, the Fathers and the 
Councils ; and it may admit of question whether, 
even in our own time, with all its boasted acquire- 
ments, it would be easy for the Parliament of Great 
Britain, if it attempted it, to gather, in the same way, 
from the several counties of England, a body of men 
of equal spiritual insight, learning and sobriety of 

Prof. Mitchell has shown that it was apparently the 
Irish Articles of Faith, drawn up under the superin- 
tendence of Archbishop Usher, that formed the 
groundwork on which the Westminster Assembly 
based their plan, in drawing up the Confession. Six 
Scottish Commissioners assisted in framing the docu- 


ment, while the Assembly itself fully reflected the 
doctrinal views prevailing in England. Thus all the 
three kingdoms went hand-in-hand in producing it. 
Scotland afterwards adopted the • Confession in its 
integrity laying aside its own time honoured symbols 
in order, to be in accord with the sister kingdoms. 
Chapters xxx., xxxi., xxiv., and the last paragraph 
of Chapter xx., never were endorsed by the Eng- 
lish Parliament. But apart from this fact, the 
Confession contains the only uniform exposition of 
doctrine ever emitted by the authority of the three 
kingdoms. Mention has been made of the moderation 
which characterizes the conclusions of this Assembly, 
as compared with those of Synods held under purely 
ecclesiastical authority. This is in some measure 
attributable to the presence of the keen-witted laymen 
who took a conspicuous part in the discussions ; but 
chiefly to the fact that, as the Assembly was sum- 
moned only to give advice to the Parliament of Eng- 
land, they knew that all their work had to run the 
gauntlet of a searching criticism, after it passed out 
of their hands, before it could receive any authority. 




Agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at West- 
minster : Examined and approved, Anno 1647, by 
the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland ; and ratified by Acts of 
Parliament 1649 and 1690. 

CHAP. l.—Of the Holy Scripture. 

I. A LTHOUGH the light of nature, and the works 
jCTL of creation and providence, do so far manifest 
the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave 
men inexcusable ; a yet they are not sufficient to give 
that knowledge of God, and of his will, which is neces- 
sary unto salvation : b therefore it pleased the Lord, at 
sundry times, and in divers manners, to reveal himself, 
and to declare that his will unto his Church ; c and 
afterwards, for the better preserving and propagating 
of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and 
comfort of the Church against the corruption of the 
flesh, and the malice of Satan and of the world, to 
commit the same wholly unto writing ; d which maketh 
the holy scripture to be most necessary ; e those 
former ways of God's revealing his will unto his 
people being now ceased. f 

I. a Rom. ii. 14, 15 ; Rom. i. 19, 20 ; Ps. xix. 1, 2, 3 ; Rom. i. 32 ^ 
Rom. ii. 1. b 1 Cor. i. 21 , 1 Cor. ii. 13, 14. c Heb. i. 1. d Prov. 
xxii. 19, 20, 21 ; Luke i. 3, 4 ; Rom. xv. 4 ; Matt. iv. 4, 7, 10 j Isa- 
viii. 19, 20. * 2 Tim. iii. 15 j 2 Pet. i. 19. * Heb. i. 1, 2. 


The Confession of Faith. 

II. Under the name of Holy Scripture, or the Word 
of God written, are now contained all the Books of the 
Old and New Testaments, which are these : — 





Num bers. 





I. Samuel. 

II. Samuel. 

I. Kings. 

II. Kings. 

I. Chronicles. 

II. Chronicles. 








The Song of Songs 




















The Gospels 

cording to 
The Acts of 

Paul's Epistles to 

the Romans. 
Corinthians I. 


Corinthians II. 
Thessalonians I. 
Thessalonians II. 
To Timothy I. 
To Timothy II. 
To Titus. 
To Philemon. 

The Epistle to the 

The Epistle of 

The first and second 

Epistles of Peter. 
The first, second 

and third Epistles 

of John. 
The Epistle of Jude. 
The Revelation. 

All which are given by inspiration of God, to be the 
rule of faith and life. g 

III. The Books commonly called Apocrypha, not 
being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon 
of the scripture ; and therefore are of no authority 
in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise ap- 
proved, or made use of, than other human 

II. g Luke xvi. 29, 31 ; Eph. ii. 20 j Rev. xxii. 18, 19 ; 2 Tim. iii. 16. 

III. h Luke xxiv. 27, 44 ; Rom. iii. 2 ; 2 Peter i. 21. 

The Confession of Faith. 13 

IV. The authority of the holy scripture, for which 
io ought to be believed and obeyed, dependeth not 
upon the testimony of any man or church, but wholly 
upon God (who is truth itself), the author thereof; 
and therefore it is to be received, because it is the 
word of God. 1 

V. We maybe moved and induced by the testimony 
of the Church to an high and reverend esteem of the 
holy scripture, k and the heavenliness of the matter,, 
the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style' 
the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole 
(which is to give all glory to God), the full discovery 
it makes of the only way of man's salvation, the many 
other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfec- 
tion thereof, are arguments whereby it doth abun- 
dantly evidence itself to be the word of God ; yet r 
notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of 
the infallible truth, and divine authority thereof, is. 
from the inward work of the Holy Spirit, bearing 
witness by and with the word in our hearts. 1 

VI. The whole counsel of God, concerning all things 
necessary for his own glory, man's salvation, faith, 
and life, is either expressly set down in scripture, or 
by good and necessary consequence may be deduced 
from scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to 
be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or 
traditions of men.™ Nevertheless, we acknowledge 
the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be 

IV. i 2 Pet. i. 19, 21 j 2 Tim. iii. 16 ; 1 John v. 9 ; 1 Thess. ii. 13. 

tViisrs & & John li - 20 - 27 ; john xvL i3 ' i4; i cor * 

VI. m 2 Tim. iii. 15, 16, 17 j Gal. i. 8, 9 ; 2 Thess. ii. 2. 

14 The Confession of Faith. 

necessary for the saving understanding of such things 
as are revealed in the word ; n and that there are some 
circumstances concerning the worship of God, and 
Government of the Church, common to human actions 
and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of 
nature and Christian prudence, according to the general 
rules of the word, which are always to be observed. 

VII. All things in scripture are not alike plain in 
themselves, nor alike clear unto all; p yet those things 
which are necessary to be known, believed, and ob- 
served, for salvation, are so clearly propounded and 
opened in some place of scripture or other, that not 
only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of 
the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient 
understanding of them. q 

VIII. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was 
the native language of the people of God of old), and 
the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the 
writing of it was most generally known to the nations), 
being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular 
care and providence kept pure in all ages, are there- 
fore authentical ; r so as in all controversies of religion, 
the Church is finally to appeal unto them. 8 But be- 
cause these original tongues are not known to all the 
people of God, who have right unto and interest in 
the scriptures, and are commanded, in the fear of God 
to read and search them,* therefore they are to be 

n John vi. 45; 1 Cor. ii. 9, 10, 11, 12. o 1 Cor. xi. 13, 14 ; 1 Cor. 
xiv. 26,40. 

VII. P 2 Pet. iii. 16. Q. Ps. cxix. 105, 130. 

VIII. r Matt. v. 18. a Isa. viii, 20 j Acta xv. 15 ; John v. 39, 46, 
t John v. 39. 

The Confession of Faith. 15 

translated into the vulgar language of every nation 
unto which they come, u that the word of God dwelling 
plentifully in all, they may worship him in an accept- 
able manner, w and, through patience and comfort of 
the scriptures, may have hope. x 

IX. The infallible rule of interpretation of scrip- 
ture is the scripture itself; and, therefore, when there 
is a question about the true and full sense of any 
scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be 
searched and known by other places that speak more 
clearly. y 

X. The supreme Judge, by which all controversies 
of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of 
councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, 
and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose 
sentence we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy 
Spirit speaking in the scripture. 2 

CHAP. II.— Of God, and of the Holy Trinity. 


THEEE is but one only a living and true Gk>d, b who 
is infinite in being and perfection, a most pure 
spirit, d invisible, 6 without body, parts/ or passions, g 
immutable, 11 immense, 1 eternal , k incomprehensible, 1 

u 1 Cor. xiv. 6, 9, 11, 12, 24, 27, 28. w Col. iii. 16. * Rom. xv. 4 

IX. y 2 Pet. i. 20, 21 ; Acts xv. 15, 16. 

X. z Matt. xxii. 29, 31 ; Eph. ii. 20 j Acts xxviii. 25. 

I. a Deut. vi. 4; 1 Cor. viii. 4, 6. b 1 Thess. i. 9; Jer. x, 10. 
c Job xi. 7, 8, 9 j Job xxvi. 14. d John iv. 24. e 1 Tim. i. 17. 
f Deut. iv. 15, 16; John iv. 24; Luke xxiv. 39. 8 Acts xiv. 11, 15. 
b James i. 17 ; Mai. iii. 6. i 1 Kings viii. 27; Jer. xxiii. 23, 24. 
k Ps. xc. 2 ; 1 Tim. i. 17. 1 Ps. cxlv. 3. 

16 The Confession of Faith 

almighty, m most wise, n most holy, most free, p most 
absolute, q working all things according to the counsel 
of his own immutable and most righteous will, r for his 
own glory ; s most loving,* gracious, mericiful, long- 
suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving 
iniquity, transgression, and sin ; u the rewarder of them 
that diligently seek him ; w and withal most just and 
terrible in his judgments ; x hating all sin, y and who 
will by no means clear the guilty. 55 

II. God hath all life, a glory, b goodness, blessedness, d 
in and of himself; and is alone in and unto himself 
all-sufficient, not standing in need of any creatures 
which he hath made, e not deriving any glory from 
them, f but only manifesting his own glory, in, by, 
unto, and upon them : he is the alone fountain of all 
being, of whom, through whom, and to whom, are all 
things i s and hath most sovereign dominion over them, 
to do by them, for them, or upon them, whatsoever 
himself pleaseth. h In his sight all things are open 
and manifest; 1 his knowledge is infinite, infallible, 
and independent upon the creature, k so as nothing is 
to him contingent or uncertain. 1 He is most holy in 
all his counsels, in all his works, and in all his com- 
mands. 111 To him is due from angels and men, and 

m Gen. xvii. 1 ; Rev. iv. 8. n Rom. xvi. 27. ° Isa. vi. 3 ; Rev. iv. 8* 
[See letter m immediately foregoing.] P Ps. cxv. 3. <l Exod. iii. 14. r Eph* 
i. 11. s p r ov. xvi. 4; Rom. xi. 36. t 1 John iv. 8, 16. u Exod* 
xxxiv. 6, 7. w Heb. xi. 6. * Neh. ix. 32, 33. y Ps. v. 5, 6. z Nah- 
i. 2, 3 ; Exod. xxxiv. 7. 

II. a John v. 26. t> Acts vii. 2. c p d . cxix. 68. d 1 Tim, vi. 15* 
Rom. ix. 5. e Acts xvii. 24, 25. f Job xxii. 2, 3. 8 Rom. xi. 36* 
h Rev. iv. 11 ; 1 Tim. vi. 15. [See letter d immediately foregoing.] Dan. 
iv. 25, 35. i Heb. iv. 13. k R om . x i. 33, 34 j Ps. cxlvii. 5. 1 Acts 
xv. 18 ; Ezek. xi. 5. m p s . cx i v . 17 ; R m. vii. 12. 

The Confession of Faith. 17 

every other creature, whatsoever worship, service, or 
obedience, he is pleased to require of them. n 

III. In the unity of the Godhead there be three 
persons, of one substance, power, and eternity ! God 
the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. ° 
The Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceed- 
ing ; the Son is eternally begotten of the Father ; p the 
Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and 
the Son.* 

CHAP. III.— Of God's Eternal Decree. 

L Cr 0J) fl ° m aU etornit F did > b ^ the most wise and 
vJ holy counsel of his own will, freely and un- 
changeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass : a yet so, 
as thereby neither is God the author of sin, b nor is 
violence offered to the will of the creatures, nor is the 
liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, 
but rather established. 

II. Although God knows whatsoever may or can 
come to pass upon all supposed conditions; d yet hath 
he not decreed any thing because he foresaw it as 
future, or as that which would come to pass upon 
such conditions. e 

III. By the decree of God, for the manifestation of 

n Rev. v. 12, 13, 14. 

Ill o 1 L John v. 7 . Matt iii. 16, 17; Matt, xxviii. 19; 2 Cor. xiii. 
14. P John l. 14, 18. q John xv. 26 ; Gal. iv. 6. 

i V,? ph i t l 1;R r* X l* 33; Heb * vL 17 '> Rom ' ix - l5 > 18. b James 

il ' • ; J, J ° « n l ' 5> C . A o Cts h ' 23 '> Matt - xvii - 12 j Acts iv. 27, 28 ; 
John xix. 11 j Prov. xvi. 33. 

» n i'i d i A . Ct 1 S A XV V c 18 '* l Sam * Xxiii * lt ' 12 '> Matt - xi - 21 > 23. e Rom. 

IX. 11, 16, 10, lo. 

18 The Confession of Faith. 

his glory, some men and angels f are predestinated 
unto everlasting life, and others foreordained to ever- 
lasting deaths 

IY. These angels and men, thus predestinated and 
foreordained, are particularly and unchangeably de- 
signed; and their number is so certain and definite, 
that it cannot be either increased or diminished. 11 

V. Those of mankind that are predestinated unto 
life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, 
according to his eternal and immutable purpose, and 
the secret counsel and good pleasure of his will, hath 
chosen in Christ unto everlasting glory/ out of his 
mere free grace and love, without any foresight of 
faith or good works, or perseverance in either of them, 
or any other thing in the creature, as conditions, or 
causes moving him thereunto ; k and all to the praise 
of his glorious grace. 1 

VI. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so 
hath he, by the eternal and most free purpose of his 
will, foreordained all the means thereunto. m Where- 
fore they who are elected being fallen in Adam, are 
redeemed by Christ; 11 are effectually called unto faith 
in Christ by his Spirit working in due season ; are 
justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by his power 

III. f 1 Tim. v. 21; Matt. xxv. 41 ; 8 Rom. ix. 22, 23; Eph. i. 5, 
6 ; Prov. xvi. 4. 

IV. h 2 Tim. ii. 19; John xiii. 18. 

V. i Eph. i. 4, 9, 11 ; Rom. viii. 30 ; 2 Tim. i. 9 ; 1 Thess. v. 9. 
k Rom. ix. 11, 13, 16. [See letter e immediately foregoing.] Eph. i. 4, 
9. [See letter i immediately foregoing.] 1 Eph. i. 6, 12. 

VI. m 1 Pet. i. 2 ; Eph. i. 4, 5 ; Eph. ii. 10 ; 2 Thess. ii. 13. n 1 
Thess. v. 9, 10; Tit, ii. 14. o R om . viii. 30; Eph. i. 5 ; 2 Thess. 
ii. 13. 

The Confession of Faith. 19 

through faith unto salvation.** Neither are any other 
redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, 
sanctified, and saved, but the elect only.^ 

VTI. The rest of mankind, God was pleased, accord- 
ing to the unsearchable counsel of his own will, where- 
by he extendeth or withholdeth mercy as he pleaseth, 
for the glory of his sovereign power over his creatures, 
to pass by, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath 
for their sin, to the praise of his glorious justice/ 

VIII. The doctrine of this high mystery of predesti- 
nation is to be handled with special prudence and 
care, 8 that men attending the will of God revealed in 
his word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may, from 
the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of 
their eternal election/ So shall this doctrine afford 
matter of praise, reverence, and admiration of God, * 
and of humility, diligence, and abundant consolation, 
to all that sincerely obey the Gospel. w 

CHAP. IV.— Of Creation. 
I. TT pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, » 
X for the manifestation of the glory of his eternal 
power, wisdom, and goodness,* in the beginning, to 

P 1 Pet. i. 5. q John xvii. 9; Rom. viii. 28 [to the end of th* 
Chapter^ j John vi. 64, 65 ; John x. 26 ; John viii. A?, j l JoTn ifl9 

t V*' r M „ att ; «' 25 -'. 26 ; Kom - ix ' 17 > 18 > 2l > 22 J 2 Tim. ii. 19 20*- 
Jude, ver. 4; 1 Pet. ii. 8. ' v > 

VIII. s Rom. ix. 20; Rom. xi. 33; Deut. xxix. 29. t 2 Pet i 10 

xi E 5 ph 6 2o 6 . ; 2 Ro pTt fif ^ el Trr med t^ 

viii 33; Luke x 20. [ ^^ediately foregoing. } R om . 

I. a Heb. i 2 ; John i. 2, 3 ; Gen. i. 2 ; Job xxvi. 13 : Job xxxiii 
. b R 0m . i. 20; Jer. x. ]2; Ps. civ. 24; P s . xxxiii. 5, 6 

20 The Confession of Faith. 

create, or make of nothing, the world, and all things 
therein, whether visible or invisible, in the space of 
six days, and all very good. c 

II. After God had made all other creatures, he 
created man, male and female, d with reasonable and 
immortal souls, e endued with knowledge, righteous- 
ness, and true holiness, after his own image/ having 
the law of God written in their hearts, g and power to 
fulfil it; h and yet under a possibility of transgressing, 
being left to the liberty of their own will, which was 
subject unto change. 1 Beside this law written in their 
hearts, they received a command not to eat of the 
tree of the knowledge of good and evil ; k which while 
they kept, they were happy in their communion with 
God, and had dominion over the creatures. 1 

CHAP. V.— Of Providence. 

I. r* OD, the great Creator of all things, doth uphold, a 
UT direct, dispose, and govern all creatures, actions, 
and things, b from the greatest even to the least, by his 
most wise and holy providence, d according to his in- 
fallible foreknowledge, e and the free and immutable 

c [The whole first Chapter of Gen.] Heb. xi. 3; Col. i. 16; Acts 
xvii. 24. 

II. d Gen. i. 27. e Gen. ii. 7 ; Eccl. xii. 7 ; Luke xxiii. 43; Matt. 
x. 28. f Gen. i. 26 ; Col. iii. 10 ; Eph. iv. 24. g Rom. ii. 14, 15. 
hEccl. vii. 29. i Gen. iii. 6 ; Eccl. vii. 29. [See letter*- immediately 
foregoing.'] k Gen. ii. 17; Gen. iii. 8, 9, 10, 11, 23. 1 Gen. i. 26, 28. 

I. a Heb. i. 3. b Dan. iv. 34, 35 ; Ps. cxxxv. 6 ; Acts xvii. 25, 26, 
28; Job, chapters xxxviii., xxxix., xl., xli. c Matt. x. 29, 30, 31. 
dProv. xv. 3; Ps. civ. 24; Ps. cxlv. 17. e Acts xv. 18; Ps. xciv. 8, 
9, 10, 11. 

The Confession of Faith 21 

counsel of his own will/ to the praise of the glory of 
his wisdom, power, justice, goodness, and mercy. e 

II. Although, in relation to the foreknowledge and 
decree of God, the first cause, all things come to pass 
immutably and infallibly ; h yet, by the same provi- 
dence, he ordereth them to fall out according to the 
nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or 
contingently. 1 

III. God in his ordinary providence maketh use of 
means, k yet is free to work without, 1 above, m and 
against them, n at his pleasure. 

IV. The almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and 
infinite goodness of God, so far manifest themselves in 
his providence, that it extend eth itself even to the 
first fall, and all other sins of angels and men, and 
that not by a bare permission/ but such as hath joined 
with it a most wise and powerful bounding,* 1 and 
otherwise ordering and governing of them, in a mani- 
fold dispensation, to his own holy ends; r yet so as the 
sinfulness thereof proceedeth only from the creature, 
and not from God ; who, being most holy and 

t Eph. i. 11 ; Ps. xxxiii. 10, 11. 8 Isa. Ixiii. 14 ; Eph. iii. 10 ; Rom. 
ix. 17 ; Gen. xlv. 7 ; Ps. cxlv. 7. 

II. h Acts ii. 23. I Gen. viii. 22 ; Jer. xxxi. 35; Exod. xxi. 13; 
Deut. xix. 5; 1 Kings xxii. 28, 34; Isa. x. 6, 7. 

III. kActs xxvii. 31, 44; Isa. lv. 10, 11 ; Hos. ii. 21, 22. 1 Hos. 
i. 7; Matt. iv. 4; Job xxxiv. 10. m Rom. iv. 19, 20, 21. n 2 Kings 
vi. 6 j Dan. iii. 27. 

IV. o Rom. xi. 32, 33, 34; 2 Sam. xxiv. 1; 1 Chron. xxi. 1; 1 
Kings xxii. 22, 23; 1 Chron. x. 4, 13, 14; 2 Sam. xvi. 10 ; Acts ii. 
23 ; Acts iv. 27, 28. P Acts xiv. 16. <l Ps. lxxvi. 10 ; 2 Kings xix. 
28. ' Gen. 1. 20 ; Isa. x. 6, 7, 12. 

22 The Confession of Faith. 

righteous, neither is nor can be the author or ap- 
prover of sin. 8 

V. The most wise, righteous, and gracious God, 
doth oftentimes leave for a season his own children to 
manifold temptations, and the corruption of their own 
hearts, to chastise them for their former sins, or to 
discover unto them the hidden strength of corruption, 
and deceitf ulness of their hearts, that they may be 
humbled ; i and to raise them to a more close and 
constant dependence for their support upon himself, 
and to make them more watchful against all future occa- 
sions of sin, and for sundry other just and holyends. u 

VI. As for those wicked and ungodly men, whom 
God as a righteous judge, for former sins, doth blind and 
harden, x from them he not only withholdeth his grace, 
whereby they might have been enlightened in their 
understandings, and wrought upon in their hearts ; y 
but sometimes also withdraweth the gifts which 
they had, 25 and exposeth them to such objects as their 
corruption makes occasion of sin; a and withal, gives 
them over to their own lusts, the temptations of the 
world, and the power of Satan : b whereby it comes to 
pass, that they harden themselves, even under those 
means which God useth for the softening of others. 

s James i. 13, 14, 17 ; 1 John ii. 16 ; Ps. 1. 21. 

V. t 2 Chron. xxxii. 25, 26. 31 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 1. u 2 Cor. xii. 7, 8, 
9; Ps. lxxiii. throughout. ^Ps. lxxvii. 1, 10, 12. [Read the inter- 
mediate verses in the Bible.~\ Mark xiv. from the 66th verse to the end, 
with John xxi. 15, 16, 17. 

VI. xRom. i- 24, 26, 28 ; Rom. xi. 7, 8. y Deut. xxix. 4. z Matt, 
xiii. 12 ; Matt. xxv. 29. a Deut. ii. 30 ; 2 Kings viii. 12, 13. b p s . 
lxxxi. 11, 12 ; 2 Thess. ii. 10, 11, 12. c Exod. vii. 3 ; Exod. viii. 15, 
32; 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16; Isa. viii. 14; 1 Pet. ii. 7, 8; Isa. vi. 9, 10; 
Acts xxviii. 26. 27. 

The Confession of Faith. 23 

VII. As the providence of God doth, in general, 
reach to all creatures ; so, after a most special manner, 
it taketh care of his church, and disposeth all things 
to the good thereof. d 

CHAP. VI.— Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the 
Punishment thereof. 

I. /^UE first parents being seduced by the subtilty 
\J and temptation of Satan, sinned in eating the 
forbidden fruit. 9. This their sin God was pleased, 
according to his wise and holy counsel, to permit, 
having purposed to order it to his own glory. b 

II. By this sin they fell from their original righte- 
ousness, and communion with God, c and so became 
dead in sin, d and wholly defiled in all the faculties 
and parts of soul and body. e 

III. They being the root of all mankind, the guilt 
of this sin was imputed/ and the same death in sin 
and corrupted nature conveyed to all their posterity, 
descending from them by ordinary generation. g 

IV. From this original corruption, whereby we are 
utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all 

VII. d 1 Tim. iv. 10 ; Amos ix. 8, 9 ; Rom. viii. 28; Isa. xliii. 3, 4, 
5, 14. 

I. a Gen. iii. 13 ; 2 Cor. xi. 3. b R om . xi. 32. 

II. c Gen. iii. 6, 7, 8; Eccl. vii. 29 j Rom. iii. 23. d Gen. ii. 17; 
Eph. ii. 1. e Tit. i. 15; Gen. vi. 5; Jer. xvii. 9; Rom. iii. 10, 11, 
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. 

III. f Gen. i. 27, 28; Gen. ii. 16, 17; Acts xvii. 26; Rom. v. 12, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 19; 1 Cor. xv. 21, 22, *45, *49. 8 Ps. Ii. 5 ; Gen. v. 
3; Job xiv. 4 ; Job xv. 14. 

24 The Confession of Faith. 

good. h and wholly inclined to all evil, 1 do proceed all 
actual transgressions. k 

V. This corruption of nature, during this life, doth 
remain in those that are regenerated ; l and although 
it be through Christ pardoned and mortified, yet both 
itself, and all the motions thereof, are truly and pro- 
perly sin. m 

VI. Every sin, both original and actual, being a 
transgression of the righteous Jaw of God, and con. 
trary thereunto, 11 doth, in its own nature, bring guilt 
upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the 
wrath of God, p and curse of the law, q and so made 
subject to death. r with all miseries spiritual, 8 tem- 
poral,* and eternal. u 

CHAP. VII.— Of God's Covenant with Man. 


great, that although reasonable creatures do 
owe obedience unto him as their Creator, yet they 
could never have any fruition of him as their blessed- 
ness and reward, but by some voluntary condescension 
on God's part, which he hath been pleased to express 
by way of covenants 

IV. hRom. v. 6; Rom. viii. 7; Rom. vii. 18; Col. i. 21. i Gen. 
vi. 5 ; Gen. viii. 21 ; Rom. iii. 10, 11, 12. k James i. 14, 15 ; Eph. 
ii. 2, 3; Matt. xv. 19. 

V. 1 1 John i. 8, 10 ; Rom- vii. 14, 17, 18, 23; James iii. 2; Prov. 
xx. 9 ; Eccl. vii. 20. m Rom. vii. 5, 7, 8, 25 ; Gal. v. 17.^ 

VI. n 1 John iii. 4. o Rom. ii. 15 ; Rom. iii. 9, 19. .P Eph. ii. 3. 
q Gal. iii. 10. r R om . vi. 23. s Eph. iv. 18. t Rom. viii. 20 ; Lam. 
iii. 39. uMatt. xxv. 41 ; 2 Thess. i. 9. 

I. alsa. xl. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 ; Job ix. 32, 33 ; 1 Sam. ii. 25 ; Ps. 
cxiii. 5, 6; Ps. c. 2, 3 ; Job xxii. 2, 3 ; Job xxxv. 7, 8 ; Luke xvii- 

in • A/»fo virii 9A Of; 

10 ; Acts xvii. 24, 25. 

The Confession of Faith. 25 

II. The first covenant made with man was a cove- 
nant of works, b wherein life was promised to Adam, 
and in him to his posterity, upon condition of perfect 
and personal obedience. d 

III. Man by his fall having made himself incapable 
of life by that covenant, the Lord was pleased to make 
a second, e commonly called the Covenant of Grace; 
whereby he freely offereth unto sinners life and salva- 
tion by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, 
that they may be saved ; f and promising to give unto 
all those that are ordained unto life his Holy Spirit, to 
make them willing and able to believed 

IV. This covenant of grace is frequently set forth 
in the scripture by the name of a Testament, in refer- 
ence to the death of Jesus Christ the testator, and to 
the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging 
to it therein, bequeathed. 11 

V. This covenant was differently administered in 
the time of the law, and in the time of the gospel; * 
under the law it was administered by promises, pro- 
phecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal Iamb, and 
other types and ordinances delivered to the people of 
the Jews, all foresignifying Christ to come, k which 
were for that time sufficient and efficacious, through 
the operation of the Spirit, to instruct and build up- 

II. b Gal. iii. 12. c Rom. x. 5 ; Rom. v. 12 to 20. [See Chan vi 
Sect. 3, letter f.] d Gen. ii. 17 ; Gal. iii. 10. L P ' 

III. e Gal. iii. 21 • Rom. viii. 3; Rom. iii. 20, 21 : Gen. iii 15 . 
Isa. xln. 6. f Mark xvi. 15, 16 ; John iii. 16 • Rom. x. 6, 9 ; Gal. iii'. 
11. gEzek. xxxvi. 26, 27 ; John vi. 44, 45. 

IV. h Heb. ix. 15, 16, 17 ; Heb. vii. 22; Luke xxii. 20 j 1 Cor. xi 25 

nl-co. 2 iftft* hV.\. r. cHeb ' Chttpters viii - ix - x -> ; Rom - »• 

26 The Confession of Faith. 

the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, 1 by whom 
they had full remission of sins, and eternal salvation ; 
and is called the Old Testament. 111 

VI. Under the gospel, when Christ the substance 11 
was exhibited, the ordinances in which this covenant 
is dispensed are the preaching of the word, and the 
administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper ; ° which, though fewer in number, and 
administered with more simplicity and less outward 
glory, yet in them it is held forth in more fulness, 
evidence, and spiritual efficacy, p to all nations, both 
Jews and Gentiles ; q and is called the New Testa- 
ment. 1, There are not therefore two covenants of 
grace differing in substance, but one and the same 
under various dispensations. 8 

CHAP. VIII.— Of Christ the Mediator. 

I. TT pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to choose 
x. and ordain the Lord Jesus, his only begotten Son, 
to be the Mediator between God and man ; a the Pro- 
phet, b Priest, and King ; d the Head and Saviour of 
his Church ; e the Heir of all things ; f and Judge of the 
world ; s unto whom he did from all eternity give a 

1 1 Cor. x. 1, 2, 3, 4; Heb. xi. 13 j John viii. 56. m Gal. iii. 7, 8, 
3, 14. 

VI. n Col. ii. 17. o Matt, xxviii. 19, 20; 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24, 25- 
P Heb. xii. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 ; Jer. xxxi. 33, 34. q Matt, xxviii- 
19. [See letter o immediately foregoing.] Eph. ii. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19- 
r Luke xxii. 20. s Gal. iii. 14, 16 ; Acts xv. 11 j Rom. iii. 21, 22, 23> 
30 ; Ps. xxxii. 1 ; Rom. iv. 3, 6, 16, 17, 23, 24 ; Heb. xiii. 8. 

I. a Isa. xlii. 1 ; 1 Pet. i. 19, 20 ; John iii. 16 ; 1 Tim. ii. 5. 
b Acts iii. 22, c Heb. v. 5, 6. d Ps. ii. 6 ; Luke i. 33. e Eph. v. 23. 
t Heb. i. 2. 8 Acts xvii. 31. 

The Confession of Faith. 21 

people to be his seed, h and to be by him in time re- 
deemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified. 1 

II. The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, 
being very and eternal God, of one substance, and 
equal with the Father, did, when the fulness of time 
was come, take upon him man's nature, k with all the 
essential properties and common infirmities thereof, 
yet without sin ; l being conceived by the power of the 
Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Mary, of her 
substance.* 1 So that two whole, perfect, and distinct 
natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were insepar- 
ably joined together in one person, without conver- 
sion, composition, or confusion. 11 Which person is 
very God and very man, yet one Christ, the only 
Mediator between God and man. 

III. The Lord Jesus, in his human nature thus 
united to the divine, was sanctified and anointed with 
the Holy Spirit above measure ; p having in him all 
the treasures of wisdom and knowledge ; * in whom it 
pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell ; r to 
the end, that being holy, harmless, undefiled, and full 
of grace and truth, 8 he might be thoroughly furnished 
to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety.* Which 
office he took not unto himself, but was thereunto 

h John xvii. 6 ; Ps. xxii. 30 ; Isa. liii. 10. i 1 Tim. ii. 6 ; Isa. lv 
4, 5 ; 1 Cor. i. 30. 

II. k John i. 1, 14; 1 John v, 20 ; Phil. ii. 6 ; Gal. iv. 4. 1 Heb 
ii. 14, 16, 17 ; Heb. iv. 15, m Luke i. 27, 31, 35 ; Gal. iv. 4. See 
letter* immediately foregoing. n Luke i. 35. [See the foregoing verse.l 
Col. n. 9 ; Rom. ix. 5 ; 1 Pet. iii. 18 ; 1 Tim. iii. 16. o Rom, i. 3, 4 • 
1 Tim. n. 5. ' 

III. P Ps. xlv. 7 ; John iii. 34. d Col. ii. 3. r Col. i. 19. s Heb 
vn. 26 ■; John i. 14. t Acts x. 38 ; Heb. xii. 24 j Heb. vii. 22. 

28 The Confession of Faith. 

called by his Father ; u who put all power and judg- 
ment into his hand, and gave him commandment to 
execute the same. x 

IV. This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly 
undertake; 7 which that he may discharge, he was 
made under the law, 2 and did perfectly fulfil it; a 
endured most grievous torments immediately in his 
soul, b and most painful sufferings in his body ; c was 
crucified, and died ; d was buried, and remained under 
the power of death, yet saw no corruption. 6 On the 
third day he arose from the dead, f with the same 
body in which he suffered ; g with which also he as- 
cended into heaven, and there sitteth at the right 
hand of his Father, 11 making intercession; 1 and shall 
return to judge men and angels at the end of the 
world. k 

V. The Lord Jesus, by his perfect obedience and 
sacrifice of himself, which he through the eternal 
Spirit once offered up unto God, hath fully satisfied 
the justice of his Father ; 1 and purchased not only re- 
conciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the 
kingdom of heaven, for all those whom the Father 
hath given unto him. m 

uHeb. v. 4, 5. x John v. 22, 27; Matt, xxviii. 18 [ Acts ii. 36.' 

IV. YPs. xl. 7, 8; Heb. x. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; John x. 18; Phil. ii. 
8. z Gal. iv. 4. a Matt. iii. 15 ; Matt. v. 17. b Matt. xxvi. 37, 38 ; 
Luke xxii. 44; Matt, xxvii. 46. c Matt., Chapters xxvi. and xxvii. 
d Phil. ii. 8. See the last scripture in y immediately foregoing, e Acts 
ii. 23, 24,27; Acts xiii. 37; Rom. vi. 9. f 1 Cor. xv. 3, 4, 5. 
g John xx. 25, 27. b. Mark xvi. 19. 1 Rom. viii. 34; Heb. ix. 24; 
Heb. vii. 25. kRom. xiv. 9, 10 ; Acts i. 11 ; Acts x. 42; Matt. xiii. 
40, 41, 42; Jude, ver. 6; 2 Pet. ii. 4. 

V. 1 Rom. v. 19; Heb- ix. 14, 16; Heb. x. 14; Eph. v. 2; Rom. 
iii. 25, 26. m Dan. ix. 24, 26 ; Col. i. 19, 20 ; Eph. i. 11, 14 ; John 
xvii. 2; Heb. ix. 12, 15. 

The Confession of Faith. 29 

VI. Although the work of redemption was not 
actually wrought by Christ till after his incarnation, 
yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefits thereof, were com- 
municated unto the elect in all ages successively from 
the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, 
types, and sacrifices, wherein he was revealed and 
signified to be the Seed of the woman, which should 
bruise the serpent's head, and the Lamb slain from 
the beginning of the world, being yesterday and to- 
day the same, and for ever. n 

VII. Christ, in the work of mediation, acteth accord- 
ing to both natures ; by each nature doing that which 
is proper to itself; ° yet, by reason of the unity of the 
person, that which is proper to one nature is some- 
times in scripture attributed to the person denomi- 
nated by the other nature. p 

VIII. To all those for whom Christ hath purchased 
redemption, he doth certainly and effectually apply 
and communicate the same; q making intercession for 
them ; r and revealing unto them, in and by the word, 
the mysteries of salvation; 8 effectually persuading 
them by his Spirit to believe and obey; and governing 
their hearts by his word and Spirit; 1 overcoming all 
their enemies by his almighty power and wisdom, in 
such manner and ways as are most consonant to his 
wonderful and unsearchable dispensation. 11 

VI. nGal. iv. 4, 5; Gen. iii. 15; Rev. xiii. 8 ; Heb. xiii. 8. 

VII. o Heb. ix. 14. [See letter 1, scripture the second.] 1 Pet. iii. >8. 
P Acts xx. 28 ; John iii. 13 ; 1 John iii. 16. 

VIII. q John vi. 37, 39; John x. 15, 16. r l John ii. 1, 2; Rom. 
viii. 34. s John xv. 13, 15; Eph. i. 7, 8, 9; John xvii. 6. t John 
xiv. 16; Heb. xii.2; 2 Cor. iv. 13; Rom. viii. 9, 14; Rom. xv. 18,19: 
John xvii. 17. u P S . ex. 1 ; 1 Cor. xv. 25, 26 ; Mai. iv. 2, 3 ; Col. ii. 15. 

30 The Confession of Faith. 

CHAP. IX.— Of Free Will 

I. r^OD hath endued, the will of man with that 
vJT natural liberty, that it is neither forced, nor by 
any absolute necessity of nature determined, to good 
or evil. a 

II. Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom and 
power to will and to do that which is good and well 
pleasing to God; b but yet, mutably, so that he might 
fall from it. c 

III. Man, by his fall into a state of sin, hath wholly 
lost all ability or will to any spiritual good accom- 
panying salvation ; d so as a natural man, being alto- 
gether averse from that good, e and dead in sin, f is not 
able, by his own strength, to convert himself or to 
prepare himself thereunto. g 

IV. When God converts a sinner, and translates 
him into the state of grace, be freeth him from his 
natural bondage under sin, h and by his grace alone 
enables him freely to will and to do that which is spi- 
ritually good ; * yet so as that, by reason of his re- 
maining corruption, he doth not perfectly nor only 
will that which is good, but doth also will that which 
is evil. k 

I. a Matt. xvii. 12; James i. 14 j Deut. xxx. 19. 

II. bEccl. vii. 29 ; Gen. i. 26. c Gen. ii. 16, 17; Gen. iii. 6. 

III. d Rom. v. 6 ; Rom. viii. 7 ; John xv. 5. e Rom. iii. 10, 12. 
f Eph. ii. 1, 5; Col. ii. 13. 8 John vi. 44, 65; Eph. ii. 2, 3, 4, 5 j 
1 Cor. ii. 14 ; Tit. iii. 3, 4, 5. 

IV. hCol. i. 13; John viii. 34, 36. 1 Phil. ii. 13; Rom. vi. 18, 22. 
kGal. v. 17 ; Rom. vii. 15, 18, 19, 21, 23. 

The Confession of Faith. 31 

V. The will of man is made perfectly and immu- 
tably free to do good alone in the state of glory only. 1 

CHAP. X.— Of Effectual Calling. 

I * A "^ th ° Se whom God nath predestinated unto 
-Tl. life, and those only he is pleased, in his ap- 
pointed and accepted time, effectually to call, a by his 
word and Spirit, b out of that state of sin and death in 
which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by 
Jesus Christ; enlightening their minds spiritually 
and savingly to understand the things of God ; d taking 
away their heart of stone, and giving unto them an 
heart of flesh : e renewing their wills, and by his al- 
mighty power determining them to that which ia 
good; f and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ; « 
yet so as they come most freely, being made willing 
by his grace. 11 

II. This effectual call is of God's free and special 
grace alone, not from anything at all foreseen in 
man ; ! who is altogether passive therein, until, being 
quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit, k he is 
thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace 
the grace offered and conveyed in it. 1 

V. i Eph. iv. 13 \ Heb. xii. 23 ; 1 John iii. 2 ; Jude, ver. 24. 

I. a Rom. viii. 30; Rom. xi. 7; Eph. i. 10, 11. b 2 Thess. ii. 13, 
14; 2 Cor. iii. 3, 6. o R om . viii. 2; Eph. ii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; 2 Tim. i. 
9, 10. d Acts xxvi. 18; 1 Cor. ii. 10, 12; Eph. i. 17, 18. e Ezek. 
xxxvi. 26. f Ezek. xi. 19; Phil. ii. 13; Deut. xxx. 6 , Ezek. xxxvi. 
27. fir Eph. i. 19 ; John vi. 44, 45. h Cant. i. 4 ; Ps. ex. 3 ; John vi. 
37; Rom. vi. 16, 17, 18. ' 

II. i 2 Tim. i. 9; Tit. iii. 4, 5 ; Eph. ii. 4, 5, 8, 9 ; Rom. ix. 11. 
* 1 Cor. ii. 14 j Rom. viii. 7 ; Epb. ii. 5. l John vi. 37 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 
27 ; John v. 25. 

32 The Confession of Faith. 

III. Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated 
and saved by Christ through the Spirit, 111 who worketh 
when, and where, and how he pleaseth. n So also are 
all other elect persons, who are incapable of being out- 
wardly called by the ministry of the word. . 

IV. Others not elected, although they may be 
called by the ministry of the word, p and may have 
some common operations of the Spirit, 4 yet they never 
truly come unto Christ, and therefore cannot be 
saved; r much less can men not professing the Chris- 
tian religion be saved in any other way whatsoever, 
be they ever so diligent to frame their lives according 
to the light of nature, and the law of that religion 
they do profess ; s and to assert and maintain that 
ihey may, is very pernicious, and to be detested. 1 

CHAP. XL— Of Justification. 
I. HPHOSE whom God effectually calleth he also 
A freely justifieth ; a not by infusing righteousness 
into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by ac- 
counting and accepting their persons as righteous: not 
for any thing wrought in them, or done by them, but 
for Christ's sake alone; not by imputing faith itself, 
the act of believing, or any other evangelical obedi- 
ence, to them as their righteousness ; but by imputing 

III. m Luke xviii. 15, 16 ; Acts ii. 38, 39 ; John iii. 3, 5 ; 1 John 
v. 12 ; Rom. viii. 9. [Compared together.] n John iii. 8. o 1 John 
v. 12 j Acts iv. 12. 

IV. PMatt. xxii. 14. a Matt. vii. 22; Matt. xiii. 20, 21 j Heb. vi. 
4, 5. * John vi. 64, 65, 66; John viii. 24. s Acts iv. 12 ; John xiv. 
6 ; Eph. ii. 12 ; John iv. 22 ; John xvii. 3. t 2 John, ver. 9, 10, 11 ; 
1 Cor. xvi. 22 ; Gal. i. 6, 7, 8. 

I. a Rom. viii. 30 ; Rom. iii. 24. 

The Confession of Faith. 33 

the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them, b 
they receiving and resting on him and his righteous- 
ness by faith : which faith they have not of them- 
selves; it is the gift of God. c 

II. Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and 
his righteousness is the alone instrument of justifica- 
tion ; d yet is it not alone in the person justified, but is 
ever accompanied with all other saving graces, and is 
no dead faith, but worketh by love. e 

III. Christ, by his obedience and death, did fully 
discharge the debt of all those that are thus justified, 
and did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to 
his Father's justice in their behalf. f Yet, in as much 
as he was given by the Father for them, g and his 
obedience and satisfaction accepted in their stead, h 
and both freely, not for anything in them, their justi- 
fication is only of free grace; 1 that both the exact 
justice and rich grace of God might be glorified in the 
justification of sinners. k 

IV. God did, from all eternity, decree to justify all 
the elect; 1 and Christ did, in the fulness of time, die 
for their sins, and rise again for their justification ; m 
nevertheless they are not justified, until the Holy 

t> Rom. iv. 5, 6, 7, 8 ; 2 Cor. v. 19, 21 ; Rom. iii. 22, 24, 25, 27, 28 ; Tit. 
iii. 5, 7; Eph. i. 7; Jer. xxiii. 6 ; 1 Cor. i. 30, 31 ; Rom. v. 17, 18, 19. 
c Acts x. 44; Gal. ii. 16; Phil. iii. 9; Acts xiii. 38, 39 ; Eph. ii. 7, 8. 

II. d John i. 12 j Rom. iii. 28; Rom. v. 1. e James ii. 17, 22, 26 ; 
Gal. r. 6. 

III. f Rom. v. 8, 9, 10, 19; 1 Tim. ii. 5, 6; Heb. x. 10, 14; Dan. 
ix. 24, 26 ; Isa. liii. 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12. B Rom. viii. 32. *■ 2 Cor. v. 
21 ; Matt. iii. 17 ; Eph. v. 2. I Rom. iii. 24 ; Eph. i. 7. k R om . iii. 
26 ; Eph. ii. 7. 

IV. 1 Gal. iii. 8 ; 1 Pet. i. 2, 19, 20 j Rom. viii. 30. m Gal. iv. 4 j 
1 Tim. ii. 6 : Rom. iv. 25. 

34 The Confession of Faith. 

Spirit doth in due time actually apply Christ unto 
them. n 

V. God doth continue to forgive the sins of those 
that are justified ; ° and although they can never fall 
from the state of justification^ yet they may by their 
sins fall under God's fatherly displeasure, and not have 
the light of his countenance restored unto them, until 
they humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, 
and renew their faith and repentance.^ 

VI. The justification of believers under the Old 
Testament was, in all these respects, one and the same 
with the justification of believers under the New 
Testament. 1 

CHAP. XII— Of Adoption. 

I. A LL those that are justified, God vouchsafeth, in 
J\ and for his only Son Jesus Christ, to make 

partakers of the grace of adoption ; a by which they 
are taken into the number, and enjoy the liberties and 
privileges of the children of God ; b have his name put 
upon them, c receive the Spirit of adoption ; d have 
access to the throne of grace with boldness; e are en- 
abled to cry, Abba, Father ; f are pitied,* protected, h 

n Col. i. 21, 22 ; Gal. ii. 16. [See letter c immediately foregoing.'] 
Tit. iii. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

V. o Matt. vi. 12 j 1 John i. 7, 9 ; 1 John ii. 1, 2. P Luke xxii. 32 ; 
John x. 28 j Heb. x. 14. <l Ps. lxxxix. 31, 32, 33; Ps. Ii. 7, 8, 9, 10, 

II, 12; Ps. xxxii. 5 j Matt. xxvi. 75; 1 Cor. xi. 30, 32; Luke i. 20. 

VI. r Gal. iii. 9, 13, 14; Rom. iv. 22, 23, 24; Heb. xiii. 8. 

I. »Eph. i. 5; Gal. iv. 4, 5. bRom. viii. 17; John i. 12. c J e r. 
xiv. 9; 2 Cor. vi. 18; Rev. iii. 12. <* Rom. viii. 15. e Eph. iii. 12; 
Rom. v. 2. * Gal. iv. 6. fir Ps. ciii. 13. * Prov. xiv. 26. 

The Confession of Faith. 35 

wovided for, 1 and chastened by him as by a father ; k 
yet never cast off, 1 but sealed to the day of redemp- 
tion, 111 and inherit the promises, 11 as heirs of everlast- 
ing salvation.2. 

CHAP. XIII.— Of Sanctification. 

L TPHEY who are effectually called and regenerated, 
X having a new heart and a new spirit created in 
them, are farther sanctified really and personally, 
through the virtue of Christ's death and resurrection, a 
by his word and Spirit dwelling in them ; b the domi- 
nion of the whole body of sin is destroyed, and the 
several lusts thereof are more and more weakened and 
mortified,* and they more and more quickened and 
strengthened in all saving graces, e to the practice of 
true holiness, without which no man shall see the 
Lord. f 

II. This sanctification is throughout in the whole 
man, g yet imperfect in this life; there abide still 
some remnants of corruption in every part ; h whence 
ariseth a continual and irreconcilable war ; the flesh 
lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the 
flesh. 1 

III. In which war, although the remaining corrup- 

i Matt. vi. 30, 32; 1 Pet. v. 7. k Heb. xii. 6. 1 Lam. iii. 31. 
i Eph. iv. 30. n Heb. vi. 12. o i p e t. i. 3, 4; Heb. i. 14. 

I. a l Cor. vi. 11 ; Acts xx. 32 ; Phil. iii. 10 ; Rom. vi. 5, 6. b John 
xvii. 17 ; Eph. v. 26 ; 2 Thess. ii. 13. c Horn. vi. 6, 14. d Gal. v. 
24; Rom. viii. 13. e Col. i. 11; Eph. iii. 16, 17, 18, 19. f 2 Cor. 
vii. 1 ; Heb. xii. 14. 

II. fir 1 Thess. v. 23. h 1 John i. 10; Rom. vii. 18, 23 ; Phil. iii. 
12; i Gal. v. 17; 1 Pet. ii. 11. 

36 The Confession of Faith. 

tion for a time may much prevail,* yet, through the 
continual supply of strength from the sanctifying 
Spirit of Christ, the regenerate part doth overcome ; \ 
and so the saints grow in grace, m perfecting holiness 
in the fear of God. n 

CHAP. XIV.— Of Saving Faith. 

I. HHHE grace of faith, whereby the elect are enabled 
A to believe to the saving of their souls, 3, is the 
work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts, b and is 
ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the word ; c by 
which also, and by the administration of the sacra- 
ments, and prayer, it is increased and strengthened. d 

II. By this faith, a Christian believeth to bo true 
whatsoever is revealed in the word, for the authority 
of God himself speaking therein ; e and acteth diffe- 
rently upon that which each particular passage thereof 
containeth ; yielding obedience to the commands/ 
trembling at the threatenings, g and embracing the 
promises of God for this life and that which is to 
come. h But the principal acts of saving faith are, 
accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for 
justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by virtue 
of the covenant of grace. 1 

III. kRom. vii. 23. 1 Rom. vi. 14; 1 John v. 4; Eph. iv. 15, 16; 
m 2 Pet. iii. 18 ; 2 Cor. iii. 18. n 2 Cor. vii. 1. 

I. a Heb. x. 39. *> 2 Cor. iv. 13; Eph. i. 17, 18, 19; Eph. ii. 8. 
c Rom. x. 14, 17. a 1 Pet. ii. 2 ; Acts xx. 32 ; Rom. iv. 11 ; Luke 
xvii. 5 j Rom. i. 16, 17. 

II. e John iv. 42 ; 1 Thess. ii. 13 ; 1 John v. 10 ; Acts xxiv. 14. 
f Rom. xvi. 26. 8 Isaiah lxvi. 2. k Heb. xi. 13; 1 Tim. iv. 8. i John 
i. 12 ; Acts xvi. 31 ; Gal. ii. 20 ; Acts xv. 11. 

The Confession of Faith 3*7 

III. This faith is different in degrees, weak or 
strong ; k may be often and many ways assailed and 
weakened, but gets the victory ; l growing up in many 
to the attainment of a full assurance through Christ, 111 
who is both the author and finisher of our faith. n 

CHAP. XV. — Of Repentance unto Life. 
[. T) EPENTANCE unto life is an evangelical grace, a 
XV the doctrine whereof is to be preached by every 
minister of the gospel, as well as that of faith in 
3hrist. b 

II. By it a sinner, out of the sight and sense, not 
mly of the danger, but also of the filthiness and odious- 
less of his sins, as contrary to the holy nature and 
ighteous law of God, and upon the apprehension of 
iis mercy in Christ to such as are penitent, so grieves 
or and hates his sins, as to turn from them all unto 
rod, purposing and endeavouring to walk with him 
n all the ways of his commandments. d 

III. Although repentance be not to be rested in, as 
ny satisfaction for sin, or any cause of the pardon 
hereof, e which is the act of God's free grace in 
Jhrist ; f yet is it of such necessity to all sinners, that 
one may expect pardon without it. g 

III. k Heb. v. 13, 14 j Rom. iv. 19, 20 ; Matt. vi. 30; Matt. viii. 
). 1 Luke xxii. 31, 32 ; Eph. vi. 16; 1 John v. 4, 5. m Heb. vi. 
L, 12 ; Heb. x. 22 ; Col. ii. 2. n Heb. xii. 2. 

I- aZech. xii. 10; Acts xi. 18. t>Luke xxiv. 47; Mark i. 15; Acts 
[. 21. 

II. c Ezek. xviii. 30, 31 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 31 ; Isa. xxx. 22; Ps. Ii. 4 ; 
ir. xxxi. 18, 19 ; Joel ii. 12, 13 ; Amos v. 15 ; Ps. cxix. 128 ; 2 Cor. 
i. 11. dp s . C xix. 6, 59, 106 ; Luke i. 6; 2 Kings xxiii. 25. 

III. e Ezek. xxxvi. 31, 32 ; Ezek. xvi. 61, 62, 63. f Hos. xiv. 2, 
; Rom. iii. 24; Eph. i. 7. 8 Luke xiii. 3, 5; Acts xvii. 30, 31. 

38 The Confession of Faith. 

IV. As there is no sin so small but it deser\ 
damnation ; h so there is no sin so great, that it c 
bring damnation upon those who truly repent. 1 

V. Men ought not to content themselves with 
general repentance; but it is every man's duty to < 
deavour to repent of his particular sins particularly 

VI. As every man is bound to make private c< 
fession of his sins to God, praying for the pard 
thereof ; x upon which, and the forsaking of them, 
shall find mercy ; m so he that seandalizeth his broth 
or the church of Christ, ought to be willing, by 
private or public confession and sorrow for his sin, 
declare his repentance to those that are offendec 
who are thereupon to be reconciled to him, and in 1( 
to receive him. 

CHAP. XVI.— Of Good Works. 
I. r^OOD works are only such as God hath cc 
UT manded in his holy word, a and not such 
without the warrant thereof, are devised by men j 
of blind zeal, or upon any pretence of good intentio 
II. These good works, done in obedience to Gc 
commandments, are the fruits and evidences of a t 
and lively faith ; c and by them believers manii 

IV. h Rom. vi. 23 ; Rom. v. 12; Matt. xii. 36. i Isa. lv. 7; R 
viii. 1 ; Isa. i. 16, 18. 

V. kp s . x ix. 13; Luke xix. 8 ; 1 Tim. i. 13, 15. 

VI. 1 Ps. li. 4, 5, 7, 9, 14 ; Ps. xxxii. 5, 6. m p rov . xxviii. U 
John i. 9. n James v. 16 ; Luke xvii. 3, 4 j Josh. vii. 19 j [Ps 
throughout.'] o 2 Cor. ii. 8. 

I. aMicah vi. 8 ; Rom. xii. 2; Heb. xiii. 21. t> Matt. xv. 9 j 
xxix. 13 j 1 Pet. i. 18 ; Rom. x. 2 ; John xvi. 2 ; 1 Sam. xv. 21, 22, 

II. c James ii. 18, 22. 

The Confession of Faith. 39 

their thankful ness, d strengthen their assurance, e edify 
their brethren/ adorn the profession of the gospel,^ 
stop the mouths of the adversaries, 11 and glorify God, * 
whose workmanship they are, created in Christ Jesus 
thereunto ; k that, having their fruit unto holiness, 
they may have the end eternal life. 1 

III. Their ability to do good works is not at all of 
themselves, but wholly from the Spirit of Christ. m 
And that they may be enabled thereunto, besides the 
graces they have already received, there is required 
an actual influence of the same Holy Spirit to work in 
them to will and to do of his good pleasure ; n yet are 
they not hereupon to grow negligent, as if they were 
not bound to perform any duty unless upon a special 
motion of the Spirit; but they ought to be diligent in 
stirring up the grace of God that is in them. 

IV. They who in their obedience attain to the 
greatest height which is possible in this life, are so 
far from being able to supererogate, and to do more 
than God requires, as that they fall short of much 
which in duty they are bound to do. p 

V. We cannot, by our best works, merit pardon of 
sin, or eternal life, at the hand of God, by reason of 
the great disproportion that is between them and the 
glory to come, and the infinite distance that is between 

d IPs. cxvi. 12, 13 ; 1 Pet. ii. 9. e i John ii. 3, 5 ; 2 Pet. i. 5, 6, 

7, 8, 9, 10. f 2 Cor. ix. 2 j Matt. v. 16. Tit. ii. 5, 9, 10, 11, 12; 
1 Tim. vi. 1. M Pet. ii. 15. i 1 Pet. ii. 12 j Phil. i. 11 j John xv. 

8. k Eph. ii. 10. iRom. vi. 22. 

III. m John xv. 4, 5, 6 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27. n Phil. ii. 13; Phil, 
iv. 13 ; 2 Cor. iii. 5. o Phil. ii. 12 ; Heb. vi. 11, 12 5 2 Pet. i. 3, 5, 
10, 11 ; Isa. lxiv. 7 ; 2 Tim. i. 6 ; Acts xxvi. 6, 7 ; Jude, ver. 20, 21. 

IV. PLuke xvii. 10 5 Neh. xiii. 22 ; Job ix. 2, 3 j Gal. v. 17. 

40 The Confession of Faith. 

us and God, whom by thorn we can neither profit nor 
satisfy for the debt of our former sins ; q but when we 
have done all we can, we have done but our duty, and 
are unprofitable servants; 1 and because as they are 
good, they proceed from his Spirit; 8 and as they are 
wrought by us, they are defiled and mixed with so 
much weakness and imperfection, that they cannot 
endure the severity of God's judgment.* 

VI. Yet notwithstanding, the persons of believers 
being accepted through Christ, their good works also 
are accepted in him ; v not as though they were in this 
life wholly unblamable and unreprovable in God's 
sight ; w but that he, looking upon them in his Son, is 
pleased to accept and reward that which is sincere, 
although accompanied with many weaknesses and im- 

VII. Works done by unregenerate men, although, 
for the matter of them, they may be things which 
God commands, and of good use both to themselves 
and others f yet, because they proceed not from an 
heart purified by faith; z nor are done in a right 
manner, according to the word ; a nor to a right end, 
the glory of God ; b they are therefore sinful, and can- 
not please God, or make a man meet to receive grace 

V. q Rom. iii. 20 ; Rom. iv. 2, 4, 6 ; Eph. ii. 8, 9 ; Tit. iii. 5, 6, 7 • 
Rom. viii. 18 ; Ps. xvi. 2 ; Job xxii. 2, 3 ; Job xxxv. 7, 8. * Luke 
xvii. 10 ; [See letter P in this Chapter.'] s Gal. v. 22, 23. t I sa . lxiv. 
6; Gal. v. 17 ; Rom. vii. 15, 18; Ps. cxliii. 2; Ps. cxxx. 3. 

VI. v Eph. i. 6 j. ,1 Pet. ii. 5 s Exod. xxviii. 38 ; Gen. iv. 4 : Heb.' 
xi. 4. w Job ix. 20 ; Ps. cxliii. 2. * Heb. xii. 20, 21; 2 Cor. viii. 
12 ;Heb. vi. 10 ; Matt. xv. 21, 23. 

VII. y 2 Kings x. 30, 31; 1 Kings xxi. 27, 29; Phil. i. 15, 16, 18. 
z Gen. iv. 5; Heb. xi. 4, 6. a i Cor. xiii. 3 ; Isa. i. 12. b Matt. vi. 
A) o, lo. 

The Confession of Faith. 41 

from God. c And yet their neglect of them is more 
sinful, and displeasing unto God. d 

CHAP. XVII. — Of the Perseverance of the Saints. 

I. HPHEY whom God hath accepted in his Beloved, 
JL effectually called and sanctified by his Spirit, 
can neither totally nor finally fall away from the 
state of grace ; but shall certainly persevere therein to 
the end, and be eternally saved. a 

II. This perseverance of the saints depends not 
upon their own freewill, but upon the immutability of 
the decree of election, flowing from the free and un- 
changeable love of God the Father ; b upon the efficacy 
of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ; c the 
abiding of the Spirit, and of the seed of God within 
them ; d and the nature of the]covenant of grace ; e from 
all which ariseth also the certainty and infallibility 
thereof. 1 

III. Nevertheless they may, through the tempta- 
tions of Satan and of the world, the prevalence of cor- 
ruption remaining in them, and the neglect of the 
means of their preservation, fall into grievous sins; g 

c Hag. ii. 14 ; Tit. i. 15 ; Amos v. 21, 22 j Hosea i. 4 ; Rom. ix. 16 ; 
Tit. iii. 5. d Ps. xiv. 4 ; Ps. xxxvi. 3 ; Job xxi. 14, 15 ; Matt. xxv. 
41, 42, 43, 45 ; Matt, xxiii. 23. 

I. a Phil. i. 6 ; 2 Pet. i. 10 j John x. 28, 29 ; 1 John iii. 9 ; 1 Pet. 
i. 5, 9. 

II. t>2 Tim. ii. 18, 19; Jer. xxxi. 3. c Heb. x. 10, 14; Heb. xiii. 
20, 21 ; Heb. ix. 12, 13, 14, 15; Rom. viii. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 
39; John xvii. 11, 24; Luke xxii. 32; Heb. vii. 25. d John xiv. 16, 
17; 1 John ii. 27 ; 1 John iii. 9. e Jer. xxxii. 40. * John x. 28; 2 
Thess. iii. 3; 1 John ii. 19. 

III. e Matt. xxvi. 70, 72, 74. 

42 The Confession of Faith. 

and for a time continue therein ; h whereby they incu: 
God's displeasure, 1 and grieve his Holy Spirit ; k com 
to be deprived of some measure of their graces an 
comforts ; l have their hearts hardened, 111 and thei 
consciences wounded;. 11 hurt and scandalize others, 
and bring temporal judgments upon themselves. p 

CHAP. XYIII. — Of Assurance of Grace and Salvation. 

I. A LTHOUGH hypocrites, and other unregenerate 
xjl men, may vainly deceive themselves with false 
hopes and carnal presumptions of being in the favour 
of God and estate of salvation ; a which hope of theirs 
shall perish ; b yet such as truly believe in the Lord 
Jesus, and love him in sincerity, endeavouring to walk 
in all good conscience before him, may in this life be 
certainly assured that they are in the state of grace, c 
and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God; 
which hope shall never make them ashamed, d 

II. This certainty is not a bare conjectural and 
probable persuasion, grounded upon a fallible hope; e 
but an infallible assurance of faith, founded upon the 
divine truth of the promises of salvation/ the inward 
evidence of those graces unto which these promises 
are made, g the testimony of the Spirit of adoption 

h Ps. li. [the title], 14. i Isa. lxiv. 5, 7, 9 ; 2 Sam. xi. 27. k Eph. 
iv. 30. 1 Ps. li. 8, 10, 12 j Rev. ii. 4 ; Cant. v. 2, 3, 4, 6. m I sa . \ x \\\. 
17; Mark vi. 52; Mark xvi. 14. » Ps. xxxii. 3, 4; Ps. li. 8. o 2 
Sam. xii. 14. P Ps. lxxxix. 31, 32; 1 Cor. xi. 32. 

I. a Job viii. 13, 14; Micah iii. 11; Deut. xxix. 19; John viii. 41. 
*>Matt. vii. 22, 23. c l John ii. 3; 1 John iii. 14, 18, 19, 21, 24; I 
John v. 13. a Rom. v. 2, 5. 

II. e Heb. vi. 11, 19 ; f Heb. vi. 17, 18. 8 2 Pet. i. 4, 5, 10, 11 ; 1 
John ii. 3; 1 John iii. 14 ; 2 Cor. i. 12. 

The Confession of Faith. 43 

witnessing with our spirits that we are the children of 
God ; h which Spirit is the earnest of our inheritance 7 
whereby we are sealed to the day of redemption. 1 

III. This infallible assurance doth not so belong to- 
the essence of faith, but that a true believer may wait 
long, and conflict with many difficulties, before he be- 
partaker of it ; k yet, being enabled by the Spirit to 
know the things which are freely given him of God, 
he may, without extraordinary revelation, in the righ t 
use of ordinary means, attain thereunto. 1 And there- 
fore it is the duty of every one to give all diligence to- 
make his calling and election sure; m that thereby his 
heart may be enlarged in peace and joy in the Holy 
Ghost, in love and thankfulness to God, and in strength 
and cheerfulness in the duties of obedience, 11 the pro- 
per fruits of this assurance : so far is it from inclining 
men to looseness. 

IV. True believers may have the assurance of their 
salvation divers ways shaken, diminished, and inter- 
mitted ; as, by negligence in preserving of it ; by fall- 
ing into some special sin, which woundeth the con- 
science, and grieveth the Spirit ; by some sudden or 
vehement temptation ; by God's withdrawing the light 
of his countenance, and suffering: even such as fear him 

hRom. viii. 15, 16. i Eph. i. 13, 14; Eph. iv. 30; 2 Cor. i. 
21, 22. 

III. k i John v. 13; Isa. 1. 10; Mark ix. 24. [See Ps. lxxxviii. 
throughout. Ps. lxxvii. to the 12th verse.] ! 1 Cor. ii. 12 ; 1 John iv. 
13 ; Heb. vi. 11, 12; Eph. iii. 17, 18, 19. m 2 Pet. i. 10. n R m. v. 
1, 2, 5; Rom. xiv. 17; Rom. xv. 13; Eph. i. 3, 4; Ps. iv. 6, 7; Ps. 
cxix. 32. o l John ii. 1, 2 ; Rom. vi. 1, 2 : Tit. ii. 11, 12, 14 ; 2 Cor. 
vii. 1 ; Rom. viii. 1, 12 j 1 John iii. 2, 3 ; Ps. cxxx. 4 ; 1 John i. 6, 7- 

44 The Confession of Faith. 

to walk in darkness, and to have no light ; p yet are 
they never utterly destitute of that seed of God, and 
life of faith, that love of Christ and the brethren, that 
sincerity of heart and conscience of duty, out of which, 
by the operation of the Spirit, this assurance may in 
due time be revived,* and by the which, in the mean 
time, they are supported from utter despair. 1 

CHAP. XIX.— Of the Law of God. 

I. r* OD gave to Adam a law, as a covenant of works, 
vJ by which he bound him, and all his posterity, 
to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual obedience; 
promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death 
upon the breach of it ; and endued him with power 
and ability to keep it. a 

II. This law, after his fall, continued to be a perfect 
rule of righteousness; and, as such, was delivered by 
God upon mount Sinai in ten commandments, and 
written in two tables ; b the first four commandments 
containing our duty towards God, and the other six ' 
our duty to man. c 

III. Besides this law, commonly called moral, God 
was pleased to give to the people of Israel, as a church 

IV. P Cant. v. 2, 3, 6; Ps. li. 8, 12, 14; Eph. iv. 30, 31; Ps. 
lxxvii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; Matt. xxvi. 69, 70, 71, 72; Ps. 
xxxi. 22 ; [Ps. lxxxviii. throughout] ; Isa. 1. 10. Q. 1 John iii. 9 ; 
Luke xxii. 32; Job xiii. 15; Ps. lxxiii. 15; Ps. li. 8, 12. [See letter P 
immediately before.] Isa. 1. 10. [See letter P immediately foregoing .] 
r Micah vii. 7, 8, 9; Jer. xxxii. 40; Isa. liv. 7, 8, 9, 10 ; Ps. xxii. 1 ; 
;[Ps. lxxxviii. throughout.] 

I. a Gen. i. 26, 27 ; Gen. ii. 17; Rom. ii. 14, 15 ; Rom. x. 5 j Rom. 
v. 12, 19; Gal. iii. 10, 12; Eccl. vii. 29; Job xxviii. 28. 

II. b James i. 25; James ii. 8, 10, 11, 12; Rom. xiii. 8, 9; Deut. 
v. 32 ; Deut. x. 4 ; Exod. xxxiv. 1. c Matt. xxii. 37, 38, 39, 40. 

The Confession of Faith. 45> 

under age, ceremonial laws, containing several typical 
ordinances; partly of worship, prefiguring Christ, his 
graces, actions, sufferings, and benefits ; d and partly- 
holding forth divers instructions of moral duties. e All 
which ceremonial laws are now abrogated under the 
New Testament/ 

IV. To them also, as a body politic, he gave sundry 
judicial laws, which expired together with the state of 
that people, not obliging any other now further than 
the general equity thereof may require. 8 

Y. The moral law doth for ever bind all, as well 
justified persons as others, to the obedience thereof; h 
and that not only in regard of the matter contained 
in it, but also in respect of the authority of God, the 
Creator, who gave it. 1 Neither doth Christ in the 
gospel any way dissolve, but much strengthen this 
obligation. 1 * 

VI. Although true believers be not under the law as^ 
a covenant of works, to be thereby justified or con- 
demned ; l yet is it of great use to them as well as to 
others ; in that as a rule of life, informing them of th& 
will of God and their duty, it directs and binds them 

III. d [Heb. Chapter ix.] Heb. x. 1 ; Gal. iv. 1, 2, 3; Col. ii. 17. 
e 1 Cor. v. 7; 2 Cor. vi. 17; Jude, ver. 23. f Col. ii. 14, 16, 17 ; 
Dan. ix. 27; Eph. ii. 15, 16. 

IV. e [Exod. Chapter xxi. Exod. xxii. 1, to the 29th verse. See both 
in the Bible.] Gen. xlix. 10 j 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14; Matt. v. 17, 38, 39 ; 
1 Cor.ix. 8, 9, 10. 

V. k Rom. xiii. 8, 9 [See above in letter*], 10 ; Eph. vi. 2 ; 1 John 
ii. 3, 4, 7, 8. i James ii. 10, 11. (See in letter*.) k Matt. v. 17 
(See in letters.), 18, 19; James ii. 8. (See in letter** before.) Rom. 
iii. 31. 

VI. 1 Rom. vi. 14; Gal. ii. 16; Gal. iii. 13; Gal. iv. 4, 5 ; Acts, 
xiii. 39 ; Rom. viii. 1. 

46 The Confession of Faith. 

to walk accordingly;™ discovering also the sinful pol- 
lutions of their nature, hearts, and lives; 11 so as, 
examining themselves thereby, they may come to 
further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred 
against sin ; ° together with a clearer sight of the need 
they have of Christ, and the perfection of his obedi- 
ence. p It is likewise of use to the regenerate, to 
restrain their corruptions, in that it forbids sin ; q and 
the threatenings of it serve to shew what even their 
sins deserve, and what afflictions in this life they may 
expect for them, although freed from the curse thereof 
threatened in the law. r The promises of it, in like 
manner, shew them God's approbation of obedience, 
and what blessings they may expect upon the per- 
formance thereof, 3 although not as due to them by the 
law as a covenant of works: 1 so as a man's doing 
good, and refraining from evil, because the law en- 
courageth to the one, and deterreth from the other, is 
no evidence of his being under the law, and not under 

VII. Neither are the foremen tioned uses of the law 
contrary to the grace of the gospel, but do sweetly 
comply with it; w the Spirit of Christ subduing and 
enabling the will of man to do that freely and cheer- 

m Rom. vii. 12, 22, 25; Ps. cxix. 4, 5, 6 ; 1 Cor. vii. 19 ; Gal. v. 
14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. See in the Bible, n R m. vii. 7 ; Rom. 
iii. 20. o James i. 23, 24, 25; Rom. vii. 9, 14, 24. P Gal. iii. 24; 
Rom. vii. 24. (See before in letter o. Verse 25, in letter m.) Rofoa. 
viii. 3, 4. <i James ii. 11 ; Ps. cxix. 101, 104, 128. * Ezra ix. 13, 
14; Ps. ixxxix. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34. s (Lev. xxvi. to the 14th verse.) 
2 Cor. vi. 16; Eph. vi. 2, 3 ; Ps. xxxvii. 11 j Matt. v. 5 ; Ps. xix. 11. 
t Gal. ii. 16 ; Luke xvii. 10. ▼ Rom. vi. 12, 14 ; 1 Pet. iii. 8, 9, 10, 
11, 12; Ps. xxxiv. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16; Heb. xii. 28, 29. 

VII. w Gal. iii. 21. 

The Confession of Faith. 47 

fully which the will of God revealed in the law re- 
quireth to be done. x 

CHAP. XX. — Of Christian Liberty, and Liberty of 

I. HPHE liberty which Christ hath purchased for 
JL believers under the gospel, consists in their 
freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning wrath 
of God, the curse of the moral law ; a and in their being 
delivered from this present evil world, bondage to 
Satan, and dominion of sin, b from the evil of afflic- 
tions, the sting of death, the victory of the grave, and 
everlasting damnation ; c as also in their free access to 
God, d and their yielding obedience unto him, not out 
of slavish fear, but a child-like love, and willing mind. e 
All which were common also to believers under the 
law; f but under the new testament, the liberty of 
Christians is further enlarged in their freedom from 
the yoke of the ceremonial law, to which the Jewish 
Church w r as subjected/ and in greater boldness of 
access to the throne of grace, h and in fuller communi- 
cations of the free Spirit of God, than believers under 
the law did ordinarily partake of. 1 

*Ezek. xxxvi. 27 ', Heb. viii. 10 ; Jer. xxxi. 33. 

I. a Tit. ii. 14 ; 1 Thess. i. 10 ; Gal. iii. 13. *> Gal. i. 4 ; Col. i. 13 ; 
Acts xxvi. 18 ; Rom. vi. 14. c Rom. viii. 28 ; Ps. cxix. 71 ; 1 Cor. 
xv. 54, 55, 56, 57 ; Rom. viii. 1. d Rom. v. 1, 2 ; e Rom. viii. 14, 15 ; 
1 John iv. 18. f Gal. iii. 9, 14. 8 Gal. iv. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 ; Gal. v. 1 ; 
Acts xv. 10, 11. h Heb. iv. 14, 16 j Heb. x. 19, 20, 21, 22. i John 
vii. 38, 39; 2 Cor. iii. 13, 17, 18. 

48 The Confession of Faith. 

II. God alone is lord of the conscience,* and hath 
left it free from the doctrines and commandments of 
men which are in any thing contrary to his word, or 
beside it, in matters of faith or worship. 1 So that to* 
believe such doctrines, or to obey such commandments 
out [oF conscience, is to betray true liberty of con- 
science; m and the requiring of an implicit faith, and 
an absolute and blind obedience, is to destroy liberty 
of conscience, and reason also. n 

III. They who, upon pretence of Christian liberty,, 
do practise any sin, or cherish any lust, do thereby 
destroy the end of Christian liberty; which is, that, 
being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, we- 
might serve the Lord without fear, in holiness and 
righteousness before him, all the days of our life. 

IV. And because the powers which God hath or- 
dained, and the liberty which Christ hath purchased, 
are not intended by God to destroy, but mutually to 
uphold and preserve one another; they who, upon 
pretence of Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful 
power, or the lawful exercise of it, whether it be civil 
or ecclesiastical, resist the ordinance of God. p And for 
their publishing of such opinions, or maintaining of 
such practices, as are contrary to the light of nature, or 

II. k James iv. 12 ; Rom. xiv. 4. * Acts iv. 19 ; Acts v. 29 ; 1 Cor- 
vii. 23 ; Matt, xxiii. 8, 9, 10 ; 2 Cor. i. 24 ; Matt. xv. 9. m Col. ii- 
20, 22, 23 ; Gal. i. 10 ; Gal. ii. 4, 5 ; Gal. v. I. n R m* x. 17 ; Rom. 
xiv. 23; Isa. viii. 20 ; Acts xvii. 11: John iv. 22 ; Hos. v. 11 ; Rev- 
xiii. 12, 16, 17 ; Jer. viii. 9. 

III. o Gal. v. 13; 1 Pet. ii. 16; 2 Pet. ii. 19; John viii. 34; 
Luke i. 74, 75. 

IV. PMatt. xii. 25 ; 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14, 16. (Rom- xiii. I, to the Stk 
verse.) Heb. xiii. 17. 

The Confession of Faith. 49 

to the known principles of Christianity, whether con- 
cerning faith, worship, or conversation ; or to the power 
of godliness ; or such erroneous opinions or practices, as 
either in their own nature, or in the manner of publish- 
ing or maintaining them, are destructive to the external 
peace and order which Christ hath established in the 
church ; they may lawfully be called to account,* 1 and 
proceeded against by the censures of jthe church, and 
by the power of the civil magistrate.' 

CHAP. XXL— Of Religious Worship, and the 
L T^HE light of nature showeth that there is a God, 
JL who hath lordship and sovereignty over all ; is 
good, and doeth good unto all ; and is therefore to be 
feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and 
served, with all the heart, and with all the soul, and 
with all the might. 8. But the acceptable way of wor- 
shipping the true God is instituted by himself, and so 
limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be 
worshipped according to the imaginations and devices 
of men, or the suggestion of Satan, under any visible 
representation, or any other way not prescribed in the 
holy scripture. b 

qRom. i. 32; 1 Cor. v. 1, 5, 11, 13; 2 John, ver 10, 11; 2 Thess. 
iii. 14; 1 Tim. vi. 3, 4, 5 ; Tit. i. 10, 11, 13; Tit. iii. 10; Matt, 
xviii. 15, 16, 17; 1 Tim. i. 19, 20 ; Rev. ii. 2, 14, 15, 20; Rev. iii. 9. 
r [Deut. xiii. 6, to the 12tK] i Rom. xiii. 3, 4; 2 John, verses 10, 11. 
[See in letter q.] Ezra vii. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28; Rev. xvii. 12, 16, 17; 
Neh. xiii. 15, 17, 21, 22, 25, 30; 2 Kings xxiii. 5, 6, 9, 20, 21; 2 
Chron. xxxiv. 33; 2 Chron. xv. 12, 13, 16; Dan. iii. 29; 1 Tim. ii. 
2 ; Isa. xlix. 23 ; Zech. xiii. 2, 3. 

I. a Rom. i. 20; Acts xvii. 24; Ps. cxix. 63; Jer. x. 7; Ps. xxxi. 
23; Ps. xviii. 3; Rom. x. 12 j Ps. lxii. 8 ; Josh. xxiv. 14; Mark xii. 
33. *> Deut. xii. 32 ; Matt. xv. 9 j Acts xvii. 25 ; Matt. iv. 9, 10 ; 
[Deut. xv. to the 2$th verse] ; Exod. xx. 4, 5, 6 ; Col. ii. 23. 

50 The Confession of Faith. 

II. Keligious worship is to be given to God, the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; and to him alone: not 
to angels, saints, or any other creature : d and, since 
the fall, not without a Mediator; nor in the mediation 
of any other but of Christ alone. e 

III. Prayer, with thanksgiving, being one special 
part of religious worship/ is by God required of all 
men; g and, that it may be accepted, it is to be made 
in the name of the Son, h by the help of his Spirit, 1 ac- 
cording to his will, k with understanding, reverence, 
humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance ; l and, 
if vocal, in a known tongue." 1 

IV. Prayer is to be made for things lawful, 11 and for 
all sorts of men living, or that shall live hereafter ; ° 
but not for the dead, p nor for those of whom it maybe 
known that they have sinned the sin unto deaths 

V. The reading of the scriptures with godly fear; r 
the sound preaching, 8 and conscionable hearing of the 
word, in obedience unto God, with understanding, 
faith, and reverence; t singing of psalms with grace in 
the heart ; v as also the due administration and worthy 

II. c Matt. iv. 10 [See before in letter*] ; John v. 23 ; 2 Cor. xiii. 
14. <* Col. ii. 18 ; Rev. xix. 10 ; Rom. i. 25. e John xiv. 6 ; 1 Tim. 
ii. 5; Eph. ii. 18 ; Col. iii. 17. 

III. * Phil. iv. 6. e Ps. lxv. 2. h John xiv. 13, 14; 1 Pet. ii. 5. 
i Rom. riii. 26. k i j hn v. 14. 1 Ps. xlvii. 7; Eccl. v. 1, 2; Heb. 
xii. 28; Gen. xviii. 27; James v. 16; James i. 6, 7; Mark xi. 24; 
Matt. vi. 12, 14, 15; Col. iv. 2; Eph. vi. 18. m i Cor. xiv. 14. 

IV. n [1 John v. 14. See letter k.] o 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2 ; John xvii. 20 ; 
2 Sam. vii. 29 ; Ruth iv. 12. P 2 Sam. xii. 21, 22, 23 ; Luke xvi. 25, 
26 ; Rev. xiv. 13. q 1 John v. 16. 

V. r Acts xv. 21; Rev. i. 3. s 2 Tim. iv. 2. t James i. 22; Acts 
x. 33; Matt. xiii. 19; Heb. iv. 2; Isa. Ixvi. 2. vCol. iii. 16 ; Eph. 
v. 19 ; James v. 13. 

The Confession of Faith. 51 

receiving of the sacraments instituted by Christ ; are 
all parts of the ordinary religious worship of God -* 
besides religious oaths x and vows,y solemn fastings 55 
and thanksgivings upon special occasions, 41 which are, 
in their several times and seasons, to be used in a holy 
and religious manner. b 

VI. Neither prayer, nor any other part of religious 
worship, is, now under the gospel, either tied unto, or 
made more acceptable by, any place in which it is 
performed, or towards which it is directed ; c but God 
is to be worshipped everywhere* in spirit and in 
truth ; e as in private families f daily,^and in secret 
each one by himself; h so more solemnly in the public 
assemblies, which are not carelessly or wilfully to be 
neglected or forsaken, when God, by his word or pro- 
vidence, calleth thereunto. 1 

VII. As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, 
a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship 
of God ; so, in his word, by a positive, moral, and 
perpetual commandment, binding all men in all ages, 
he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a 
sabbath, to be kept holy unto him : k which, from the 
beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, 
was the last day of the week; and from the resurrec- 

w Matt, xxviii. 19. [1 Cor. xi. 23 to verse 29.] Acts ii. 42. *Deut. 

V' ]*'' t >: *' 29 ,\ y Is S* xix ' 21 >* EccL v - 4 > 5 - z J <> e i »• 12; Esth. 

99* b ; A •• X, o J - 1 C0r * ViL 5 ' * t Ps - cvii * throughout.] Esth. ix. 

+>£» " xlGD- Xll. 40* 

VI. c John iv. 21. d Mai. i. 11 j l Tim. ii. 8. e John iv. 23, 24. 
f Jer. x. 25; Deut. vi. 6, 7 ; Job i. 5 ; 2 Sam. vi. 18, 20 j 1 Pet. iii. 
7; Acts x. 2 s Matt vi. 11. h Matt. vi. 6; Eph. vi. 18. i Isa. 
lvi. 6 7; Heb. x. 25; Prov. i. 20, 21, 24; Prov. viii. 34; Acts xiii. 
42 ; Luke iv. 16 ; Acts ii. 42. ' 

VIL kExod. xx. 8, 10, 11 ; Isa. lvi. 2, 4, 6, 7. {See in letter i .) 

52 The Confession of Faith. 

tion of Christ, was changed into the first day of the 
week, 1 which in scripture is called the Lord's Day, m 
and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the 
Christian Sabbath. 11 

VIII. This sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, 
when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and 
ordering of their common affairs before-hand, do not 
only observe an holy rest all the day from their own 
works, words, and thoughts about their worldly em- 
ployments and recreations ; ° but also are taken up the 
whole time in the public and private exercises of his 
worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy ? p 

CHAP. XXII.— Of lawful Oaths and Vows. 

I. A LAWFUL oath is a part of religious worship, a 
jljl wherein, upon just occasion, the person swear- 
ing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth 
or promiseth ; and to judge him according to the truth 
or falsehood of what he sweareth. b 

II. The name of God only is that by which men 
ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all 
holy fear and reverence ; c therefore to swear vainly or 
rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear 
at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred. d 

l Gen. ii. 2, 3 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2 ; Acts xx. 7. m Rev. i. 10. n Exod. 
xx. 8, 10 [See letter*] j Matt. V. 17, 18. 

VIII. o Exod. xx. 8. [See letter K] Exod. xvi. 23, 25, 26, 29, 30 ; 
Exod. xxxi. 15, 16, 17 j Isa. lviii. 13; Neh. xiii. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 
21, 22. P Isa. lviii. 13. (See in letter o. Matt. xii. 1, to the Uth Verse.) 

I. a Deut. x. 20. * Exod. xx. 7 j Lev. xix. 12 ; 2 Cor. i. 23 ; 2 
Chron. vi. 22, 23. 

II. c Deut. vi. 13. dExod. xx. 7. (See letter*.) Jer. v. 7j Matt, 
v. 34, 37 j James v. 12. 

The Confession of Faith 53 

Yet as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is 
warranted by the word of God under the New Testa- 
ment, as well as under the L 01d; e so a lawful oath, 
being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters, 
ought to be taken. f 

III. Whosoever taketh an oath, ought duly to con- 
sider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein 
to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is 
the truth. 8 Neither may any man bind himself by 
oath to any thing but what is good aud just, and what 
he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved 
to perform. 11 Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touch- 
ing any thing that is good and just, being imposed by 
lawful authority. 1 

IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common 
sense of the words, without equivocation or mental 
reservation. 1 * It cannot oblige to sin; but in any- 
thing not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, 
although to a man's own hurt ; l nor is it to be violated, 
although made to heretics or inndels. m 

V. A vow is of the Like nature with a promissory 
oath, and ought to be made with the like religious 
care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness. 11 

VI. It is not to be made to any creature, but to God 

e Heb. vi. 16 \ 2 Cor. i. 23. (See letter*.) Isa. lxv. 16. f 1 Kings 
viii. 31; Neh. xiii. 25; Ezra x. 5. 

III. gExod. xx. 7. (See letter*.) Jer. iv. 2. * Gen. xxiv. 2, 3, 
5, 6, 8, 9. i Num. v. 19, 21 ; Neh. v. 12; Exod. xxii. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

IV. k Jer. iv. 2. (See letters.) Ps. xxiv. 4. 1 1 Sam. xxv. 22, 32, 
33, 34; Ps. xv. 4. m Ezek. xvii. 16, 18, 19 ; Josh. ix. 18, 19; 2 Sam. 
xxi. 1. 

V. * Isa. xix. 21 ; Eccl. v. 4, 5, 6 ; Ps. lxi. 8; Ps. lxvi. 13, 14. 

54 The Confession of Faith. 

alone : ° and that it may be accepted, it is to be made 
voluntarily, out of faith, and conscience of duty, in 
way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for the 
obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly 
bind ourselves to necessary duties, or to other things, 
so far and so long as they may fitly conduce there- 
unto. 1 * 

VII. No man may vow to do any thing forbidden in 
the word of God, or what would hinder any duty 
therein commanded, or which is not in his power, and 
for the performance whereof he hath no promise of 
ability from God.* 1 In which respects, Popish mon- 
astical vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, 
and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees 
of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and 
sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle 
himself. 1 

CHAP. XXIII.— Of the Civil Magistrate. 

I. /^OD, the supreme Lord and King of all the 
vX world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be 
under him over the people, for his own glory, and the 
public good; and, to this end, hath armed them with 
the power of the sword, for the defence and encourage- 

VI. oPs. lxxvi. 11 j Jer. xliv. 25, 26. P Deut. xxiii. 21, 22, 23; 
Ps. 1. 14; Gen. xxviii. 20, 21, 22; 1 Sam. i. 11; Ps. lxvi. 13, 14. 
(See letter.™.) Ps. cxxxii. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

VII. <lActs xxiii. 12, 14. Mark vi. 26; Num. xxx. 5, 8, 12, 13. 
r Matt. xix. 11, 12 ; 1 Cor. vii. 2, 9 ; Eph. iv. 28 ; 1 Pet. iv. 2 ; 1 
Cor. vii. 23. 

The Confession of Faith, 55 

ment of them that are good, and for the punishment 
of evil doers. 8, * 

II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute 
the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto : b in 
the managing whereof, as they ought especially to 
maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the 
wholesome laws of each commonwealth ; J( L so, for that 
end, they may lawfully now under the New Testa- 
ment, wage war upon just and necessary occasions. 4 

III. The civil magistrate may not assume to him- 
self the administration of the word and sacraments, or 
the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven : e yet 
he hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, 
that unity and peace be preserved in the church, that 
the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blas- 
phemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions 
and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or re- 
formed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, 
administered, and observed.^ For the better effecting 

I. a Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 3, 4; 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. 

II. kp r ov. viii. 15, 16; Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 4. (See in letter*.) c Ps. ii. 
10, 11, 12 ; 1 Tim. ii. 2 ; Ps. lxxxii. 3, 4j 2 Sam. xxiii. 3 ; 1 Pet. ii 
13. (See in letter*,) d Luke iii. 14; Rom. xiii. 4 (See letter*) 
Matt. viii. 9, 10 j Acts x. 1, 2; Rev. xvii. 14, 16. 

III. e 2 Chron. xxvi. 18 j Matt, xviii. 17 j Matt. xvi. 19 j 1 Cor. 
xii. 28, 29 j Eph. iv. 11, 12 ; 1 Cor. iv. 1, 2 ; Rom. x. 15 j Heb. v. 4. 
f Isa. xlix. 23 j Ps. cxxii. 9 ; Ezra vii. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28 j Lev. xxiv. 
16 j Deut. xiii. 5, 6, 12 ; 2 Kings xviii. 4 ; (1 Chron. xiii. 1, to the 
9th verse. 2 Kings xxiv. 1, to the 26th verse.) 2 Chron. xxxiv. 33 j 
2 Chron. xv. 12, 13. 

* A clause in Section 2, of the Basis of Union, of the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada, says: — "It being understood that nothing con- 
tained in the aforesaid Confession or Catechisms, regarding the 
power and duty of the Civil Magistrate, shall be held to sanction 
any principles or views inconsistent with full liberty of conscience 
in matters of religion." 

56 The Confession of Faith. 

whereof, he hath power to call synods, to be present at 
them, and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in 
them be according to the mind of God. g 

IV. It is the duly of people to pray for magistrates, b 
to honour their persons, 1 to pay them tribute and other 
dues, k to obey their lawful commands, and to be sub- 
ject to their authority for conscience sake. 1 Infidelity, 
or difference in religion, doth not make void the 
magistrate's just and legal authority, nor free the 
people from their due obedience to him : m from which 
ecclesiastical persons are not exempted ; n much less 
hath the Pope any power or jurisdiction over them in 
their d(*minions, or over any of their people ; and 
least of all to deprive them of their dominions or lives, 
if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any 
other pretence whatsoever. 

CHAP. X.X1Y .—Of Marriage and Divorce. 

I. II /TAKKIAGE is to be between one man and one 
1V1 woman : neither is it lawful for any man to 

have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have 
more than one husband at the same time. 3, 

II. Marriage was ordained for .the mutual help of 
husband and wife ; b for the increase of mankind with 

8 2 Chron. xix. 8, 9, 10, 11 ; [2 Chron. Chapters xxix. and xxx.] 
Matt. ii. 4, 5. 

IV. & 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. i 1 Pet. ii. 17. k R cm . xiii. 6, 7. 1 Rem. 
xiii. 5; Tit. iii. 1. mi p e t. ii. 13, 14, 16. nR om . xiii. 1; 1 Kings 
ii. 35; Acts xxv. 9, 10, 11 ; 2 Pet. ii. 1, 10, 11 j Jude, ver. 8, 9, 10, 

II. o 2 Thess. ii. 4; Rev. xiii. 15, 16, 17. 

I. a Gen ii. 24; Matt. xix. 5, 6 ; Prov. ii. 17. 

II. bGen. ii. 18. 

The Confession of Faith. 57 

a legitimate issue, and of the church with an holy 
seed ; • and for preventing of uncleanness." 

III. It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry who 
are able with judgment to give their consent;' yet it, 
is the duty of Christians to marry only in the Lord * 
And therefore such as profess the true reformed 
religion should not marry with infidels, Papists or 
other idolaters; neither should such as are godly be 
unequally yoked, by marrying with such as are 
notoriously wicked in their life, or maintain damnable 
heresies. 8 

IV. Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of 
consanguinity or affinity forbidden in the word ; * nor 
can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by 
any law of man, or consent of parties, so as those 
persons may live together as man and wife.' The man 
may not marry any of his wife's kindred nearer in blood 
than he may of his own, nor the woman of her hus- 
band's kindred nearer in blood than of her own. k 

V. Adultery or fornication committed after a con- 
tract, being detected before marriage, giveth just 
occasion to the innocent party to dissolve that con- 
tract. 1 In the case of adultery after marriage, it is 
lawful for the innocent party to sue out a divorce" 

e Mai. ii. 15. d 1 Cor. vif. 2, 9. 

III. e Heb. xiii. 4; 1 Tim. iv. 3; 1 Cor. vii. 36 37 1ft. r<„„ 
Ev 57, 58. f 1 Cor. vii. 39. SGen. xxxiv. 14 Exod 'xzxiv f 6 : 
iCor. ll'll ' DgS Xi ' 4; Neh * XiiL 25 ' 26 ' 27 >- Mai. Tn f 12,' 

IV. h [Lev. Chapter xviii.] 1 Cor. v. 1 , Amos ii. 7. I Mark vi 
8 j Lev. xviii. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. k Lev. xx. 19, 20, 21. 

V. 1 Matt. i. 18, 19, 20. mMatt. v. 31, 32. 

58 The Confession of Faith. 

and, after the divorce, to marry another, as if the 
offending party were dead. n 

VI. Although the corruption of man be such as is 
apt to study arguments, unduly to put asunder those 
whom God hath joined together in marriage; yet 
nothing but adultery, or such wilful desertion as can 
no way be remedied by the church or civil magistrate, 
is cause sufficient of dissolving the bond of marriage : ° 
wherein a public and orderly course of proceeding is 
to be observed, and the persons concerned in it not 
left to their own wills and discretion in their own 
oase. p 

CHAP. XXV.^O/ the Church. 

I. THHE catholic or universal church, which is ill 
L visible, consists of the whole number of thi 
olect that have been, are, or shall be gathered into 
one, under Christ the head thereof; and is the spousi 
the body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all. a 

II. The visible church, which is also catholic Oft 
universal under the gospel (not confined to one natiom 
as before under the law), consists of all those througl 
out the world that profess the true religion, b togetha 
with their children ; c and is the kingdom of the Lord 

n Matt. xix. 9 ; Rom. vii. 2, 3. 

VI. oMatt. xix. 8, 9 [See lettert^.] 1 Cor. vii. 15; Matt. xix. I 
3> Deut. xxiv. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

I. aEph. i. 10, 22, 23; Eph. v. 23, 27, 32; Col. i. 18. 

II. l>lCor. i. 2; 1 Cor. xii. 12, 13; Ps. ii. 8; Rev. vii. 9; RoA 
xv. 9, 10, 11, 12. c i Cor. vii. 14; Acts ii. 39; Ezek. xvi. 20, 2| 
Rom. xi. 16; Gen. iii. 15 ; Gen. xvii. 7. d Matt. xiii. 47; Isa. ix.f. 
•e Eph. ii. 19; Eph. iii. 15. f Acts ii. 47. 

The Confession of Faith. 59 

Jesus Christ, d the house and family of God, e out of 
which there is no ordinary possibility of salvation/ 

III. Unto this catholic visible church Christ hath 
given the ministry, oracles, and ordinances of God, for 
the gathering and perfecting of the saints in this life, 
to the end of the world ; and doth by his own presence 
and Spirit according to his promise, make them 
effectual thereunto. 8 

IV. This catholic church hath been sometimes more, 
sometimes less visible. 11 And particular churches, 
which are members thereof, are more or less pure, 
according as the doctrine of the gospel is taught and 
embraced, ordinances administered, and public worship 
performed more or less purely in them. 1 

Y. The purest churches under heaven are subject 
both to mixture and error ; k and some have so degene- 
rated as to become no churches of Christ, but synago- 
gues of Satan. 1 Nevertheless, there shall be always a 
church on earth to worship God according to hiswill. m 

VI. There is no other head of the church but the 
Lord Jesus Christ : n nor can the Pope of Rome in any 
sense be head thereof; but is that antichrist, that man 
of sin, and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in 
the church against Christ, and all that is called God. ° 

III. erl Cor. xii. 28 ; Eph. iv. 11, 12, 13; Matt, xxviii. 19, 20; 
Isa. lix. 21. 

IV. h Rom. xi. 3, 4 ; Rev. xii. 6, 14. i (Rev. Chapters ii. and iii. 
throvghout.) 1 Cor. v. 6, 7. 

V. M Cor. xiii. 12. [Rev. Chapters ii. and iii.] Matt. xiii. 24-30, 
47. 1 Rev. xviii. 2 ; Rom. xi. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. m Matt. xvi. 18 j 
Ps. lxxii. 17 ; Ps. cii. 28 j Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. [See in letter g.] 

VI. n Col. i. 18 ; Eph. i. 22. o Matt, xxiii. 8, 9, 10 j 2 Thess ii. 3, 
4, 8, 9 ; Rev. xiii. 6. 

62 The Confession of Faith. 

dispensed by any but by a minister of the word, law- 
fully ordained. k 

V. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard 
of the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, 
were, for substance, the same with those of the New. 1 

CHAP. XXVIII.— Of Baptism. 

I. "jQAPTISM is a sacrament of the New Testament, 
JD ordained by Jesus Christ, 8, not only for the 
solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible 
church, b but also to be unto him a sign and # seal of the 
covenant of grace, of his ingrafting into Christ, d of 
regeneration, 6 of remission of sins, f and of his giving 
up unto God through Jesus Christ, to walk in newness 
of life: s which sacrament is by Christ's own appoint- 
ment, to be continued in his church until the end of 
the world. h 

II. The outward element to be used in this sacra- 
ment is water, wherewith the party is to be baptized 
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, by a minister of the gospel, lawfully 
called thereunto. 1 

III. Dipping of the person into the water is not 

IV. kMatt. xxviii. 19; 1 Cor. xi. 20, 23 : 1 Cor. iv. 1 ; Heb. v. 4. 

V. 1 1 Cor. x. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

I. a Matt, xxviii. 19. [See letter* of the foregoing Chapter.'] *> 1 Cor. 
xii. 13. c Rom. iv. 11; Col. ii. 11, 12. d Gal. iii. 27; Rom. vi. 5. 
e Tit. iii. 5. f Mark i. 4. gRom. vi. 3, 4. ^Matt. x\viii. 19 [See 
in letter* foregoing Chapter], 20. 

II. i Matt. iii. 11; John i. 33; Matt, xxviii. 19 [See in letter* 
foregoing Chapter], 20. [See in letter^.] 

The Confession of Faith. 63 

necessary; but baptism is rightly administered by 
pouring or sprinkling water upon the person. k 

IV. Not only those that do actually profess faith in 
&nd obedience unto Christ, 1 but also the infants of one 
or both believing parents are to be baptized." 1 

V. Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect 
[his ordinance, 11 yet grace and salvation are not so in- 
separably annexed unto it, as that no person can be 
regenerated or saved without it, or that all that are 
baptized are undoubtedly regenerated. 1 * 

VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tied to that 
moment of time wherein it is ad mistered ; q yet not- 
withstanding, by the right use of this ordinance, the 
jrace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited 
md conferred by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of 
ige or infants) as that grace belongeth unto, aaeord- 
ng to the counsel of God's own will in his appointed 
ime. r 

VII. The sacrament of baptism is but once to be 
administered to any person. 8 

III. kHeb. ix. 10, 19, 20, 21, 22; Acts ii. 41; Acts xvi. 33 j Mark 
rii. 4. 

IV. 1 Mark xvi. 15, 16; Acts viii. 37, 38. m Gen. xvii. 7, 9 - r 
Jal. iii. 9, 14; Col. ii. 11, 12; Acts ii. 38, 39; Rom. iv. 11, 12; 

Cor.vii.14 ; Matt, xxviii. 19 ,• Mark x. 13, 14, 15, 16 ; Luke xviii. 15. 

V. n Luke vii. 30 ; Exod. iv. 24, 25, 26. o Rom. iv. 11. [See in 
etterm.-] Acts x. 2, 4, 22, 31, 45, 47. P Acts viii. 13, 23. 

VI. q John iii. 5, 8. r Gal. iii. 27 ; Tit. iii. 5 ; Eph. v. 25, 26 ; 
Lets ii. 38, 41. 

VII. s Tit. iii. 5. [See in letter r.] 

64 The Confession of Faith. 

CHAP. XXIX.— Of the Lord's Supper. 

I. /^UR Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was 
\J betrayed, instituted the sacrament of his body 
and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to be observed in 
his church unto the end of the world, for the perpetual 
remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, 
the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers, 
their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their 
further engagement in and to all duties which they 
owe unto him, and to be a bond and pledge of their 
communion with him, and with each other, as mem- 
bers of his mystical body. a 

II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his 
Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission 
of sins of the quick or dead ; b but only a commemora- 
tion of that one offering up of himself, by himself, 
upon the cross, once for all, and a spiritual oblation of 
all possible praise unto God for the same; c so that the 
Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is most 
abominably injurious to Christ's one only sacrifice, the 
* alone propitiation for all the sins of the elect.d 

III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, ap- 
pointed his ministers to declare his word of institution 
to the people, to pray, and bless the elements of bread 
and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a com- 
mon to a holy use ; and to take and break the broad, 

I. a i Cor. xi. 23, 24, 25, 26 j 1 Cor. x. 16, 17, 21 j 1 Cor. xii. 13. 

II. b Heb. ix. 22, 25, 26, 28. c 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. [See them in 
letter*.] Matt. xxvi. 26, 27. <* Heb. vii. 23, 24, 27 j Heb. x. 11, 12, 
14. 18. 

The Confession of Faith 65 

to take the cup, and (they communicating also them- 
selves) to give both to the communicants ; e but to 
none who are not then present in the congregation. 1 

IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by 
a priest, or any other, alone ; s as likewise the denial 
of the cup to the people ; h worshipping the elements, 
the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adora- 
tion, and the reserving them for any pretended religi- 
ous use; are all contrary to the nature of this sacra- 
ment, and to the institution of Christ. 1 

V. The outward element's in this sacrament, duly set 
apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation 
to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only 
they are sometimes called by the name of the things 
they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ ; k 
albeit, in substance and nature they still remain truly 
and only bread and wine, as they were before. 1 

VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the 
substance of bread and wine into the substance of 
Christ's body and blood (commonly called Transub- 
stantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any 
other way, is repugnant not to scripture alone, but 
even to common sense and reason ; overthroweth the 
nature of the sacrament; and hath been and is the 
cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries." 1 

III. e Matt. xxvi. 26, 27 [See in letter c], 28 ; Mark xiv. 22, 23, 24 ; 
Luke xxii. 19, 20; 1 Cor. xi. 23-26. [See all in letter*.] f Acts 
xx. 7 j 1 Cor. xi. 20. 

IV. 8 1 Cor. x. 6. h Mark xiv. 23. [Sec in letter c.] 1 Cor. xi. 25, 
26 [See in letter a,] 27, 28, 29. I Matt. xv. 9. 

V. * Matt. xxvi. 26, 27, 28. 1 1 Cor. xi. 26, 27, 28 j Matt. xxvi. 29. 

VI. m Acts iii. 21 ; 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. [See in letter*.] Luke 
xxiv. 6, 39. 

66 The Confession of Faith. 

VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the 
visible elements in this sacrament, 11 do then also in- 
wardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnal I3- 
and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon 
Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death ; the 
body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or 
carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet as* 
really, but spiritually, present to the faith or believers 
in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to 
their outward senses. 

VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive 
the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they 
receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their 
unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body 
and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. 
Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they 
are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they 
unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without 
great sin against Christ, while they remain such, par- 
take of these holy mysteries, 1 ' or be admitted there- 
unto/ 1 

CHAP. XXX— Of Church Censures. 
L rPHE Lord Jesus, as king and head of his church, 
A hath therein appointed a government in the 
hand of church officers, distinct from the civil magi- 
strate. 3 

II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom of 

VII. n 1 Cor. xi. 28. [See in letter 1 •] o 1 Cor. x. 16. 

VIII. P 1 Cor. xi. 27, 28 [See in letter 1 ], 29 ; 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15, 16 
<ii Cor. v. 6, 7, 18 ; 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14, 15; Matt. vii. 6. 

I. al S a. ix. 6, 7; 1 Tim. v. 17 ; 1 Thess. v. 12; Acts xx. 17, 18 
Heb. xiii. 7. 17, 24; 1 Cor. xii. 28 ; Matt, xxviii. 18, 19, 20. 

The Confession of Faith. <>7 

heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have 
power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut 
that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the 
word and censures; and to open it unto penitent 
sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolu- 
tion from censures, as occasion shall require. 15 

III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaim- 
ing and gaining of offending brethren; for deterring 
of others from the like offences ; for purging out of 
that leaven which might infect the whole lump ; for 
vindicating the honour of Christ, and the holy profes- 
sion of the gospel; and for preventing the wrath of 
God, which might justly fall upon the church, if they 
should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereof, to be 
profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders. 

IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the 
officers of the church are to proceed by admonition, 
suspension from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
for a season, and by excommunication from the 
church, according to the nature of the crime, and 
demerit of the person. d 

CHAP. XXXI.— Of Synods and Councils. 
I. T?OR the better government, and further edifica- 
X tion of the church, there ought to be such as- 
semblies as are commonly called Synods or Councils. a 

II. bMatt. xvi. 19; Matt, xviii. 17, 18 ; John xx. 21, 22, 23; 2 
Cor. ii. 6, 7, 8. 

III. c [1 Cor. v. throughout.] 1 Tim. v. 20 ; Matt. vii. 6; 1 Tim. i. 
20. [1 Cor. xi. 27 to the end.] Jude, vcr. 23. 

IV. d l Thess. v. 12; 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14, 15; 1 Cor. v. 4, 5, 13; 
Matt, xviii. 17; Tit. iii. 10. 

I. a Acts xv. 2, 4, 6. 

68 The Confession of Faith. 

II. As magistrates may lawfully call a synod of 
ministers, and other fit persons, to consult and advise 
with about matters of religion ; b so if magistrates be 
open enemies to the church, the ministers of Christ, 
of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they, with 
other fit persons upon delegation from their churches, 
may meet together in such assemblies. 

III. It belongeth to synods and councils minis- 
terially to determine controversies of faith, and cases 
of conscience ; to set down rules and directions for the 
better ordering of the public worship of God, and 
government of his church ; to receive complaints in 
cases of mal-administration, and authoritatively to 
determine the same: which decrees and determina- 
tions, if consonant to the word of God, are to be 
received with reverence and submission, not only for 
their agreement with the word, but also for the power 
whereby they are made, as being an ordinance of God, 
appointed thereunto in his word. d 

IV. All synods or councils since the apostles' times, 
whether general or particular, may err, and many 
have erred ; therefore they are not to be made the 
rule of faith or practice, but to be used as a help in 

V. Synods and councils arc to handle or conclude 
nothing but that which is ecclesiastical ; and are not 

II. b Isa. xlix. 23 ; 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. [2 Chron. xix. 8 to the end. 2 
Chron. Chapters xxix. and xxx. throughout. | Matt, ii- 4, 5; Prov. 
xi. 14. c Acts xv. 2, 4 [See in letter a], 22, 23, 25. 

III. d Acts xv. 15, 19, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. [See in the Bible.] 
Acts xvi. 4; Matt, xviii. 17, 18, 19, 20. 

IV. e Eph. ii. 20 j Acts xvii. 11 j 1 Cor. ii. 5 ; 2 Cor. i. 24. 

The Confession of Faith. 69 

to intermeddle with civil affairs, which concern the 
commonwealth, unless by way of humble petition, in 
cases extraordinary ; or by way of advice for satisfac- 
tion of conscience, if they be thereuuto required by 
the civil magistrate/ 

CHAr. XXXII.— 0/ the State of Men after Death, 
and of the Resurrection of the Dead. 
I. HPHE bodies of men after death return to dust, 
A and see corruption ; a but their souls (which 
neither die nor sleep), having an immortal subsistence, 
immediately return to God who gave them. b The 
souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in 
holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where 
they behold the face of God in light and glory, wait- 
ing for the full redemption of their bodies ; c and the 
souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they 
remain in torments and utter darkness, reserved to 
the judgment of the great day. d Besides these two 
places for souls separated from their bodies, the scrip- 
ture acknowledge th none. 

II. At the last day, such as are found alive shall 
not die, but be changed : c and all the dead shall be 
raised with the self-same bodies, and none other, 
although with different qualities, which shall be united 
again to their souls for ever. f 

V. f Luke xii. 13, 14 ; John xviii. 36. 

I. a Gen. iii. 19; .Acts xiii. 36. b Luke xxiii. 43; Eccl. xii. 7. 
c'Heb. xii. 23; 2 Cor. v. 1, 6, 8; Phil. i. 23; Acts iLr. 21 ; Eph. iv. 
JO. dLuke xvi. 23, 24; Acts i. 25; Jude, ver. 6, 7; 1 Pet. iii. 19. 

II. e i Thess. iv. 17 ; 1 Cor. xv. 51, 52. * Job xix. 26, 27; 1 Cor. 
xv. 42, 43, 44. 

70 The Confession of Faith. 

III. The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of 
Christ, be raised to dishonour; the bodies of the just, 
by his Spirit, unto honour, and be made conformable 
to his own glorious body * 

CHAP. XXXIII.— Of the Last Judgment 

I. f^OD hath appointed a day wherein he will judge 
vJT the world in righteousness by Jesus Christ, a tx> 
whom all power and judgment is given of the Father. b 
In which day not only the apostate angels shall be 
judged, c but likewise all persons that have lived upon 
earth shall appear before the tribunal of Christ, to 
give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds, 
and to receive according to what they have done in 
the body, whether good or evil, d 

II. The end of God's appointing this day is for the 
manifestation of the glory of his mercy in the eternal 
salvation of the elect, and of his justice in the damna- 
tion of the reprobate, who are wicked and disobedient. 
For then shall the righteous go into everlasting life, 
and receive that fulness of joy and refreshing which 
shall come from the presence of the Lord ; but the 
wicked, who know not God, and obey not the gospel 
of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eternal torments, 
and be punished with everlasting destruction from the 

III. *? Acts xxiv. 15 ; John v. 28, 29 ; 1 Cor. xv. 43. [See in letter f.] 
Phil. iii. 21. 

I. a Acts xvii. 31. ^ John v. 22, 27. c i Cor. vi. 3 ; Jude, ver. 6- 
[See letter & Chapter foregoing.'] 2 Pet. ii. 4. d 2 Cor. v . 10 J Eccl- 
xii. 14; Rom. ii. 16; Rom. xiv. 10, 12; Matt. xii. 36, 37. 

The Confession of Faith. 71 

presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his 
power. 6 

III. As Christ would have us to be certainly per- 
suaded that there shall be a day of judgment, both to 
deter all men from sin, and for the greater consolation 
of the godly in their adversity; f so will he have that 
day unknown to men, that they may shake oil' all 
carnal security, and be always watchful, because they 
know not at what hour the Lord will come; and ma}^ 
be ever prepared to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come 
quickly. Amen." 

II. e [Matt. xxv. 31, to the end.] Rom. ii. 5, 6; Rom. ix. 22, 23; 
Matt. xxv. 21 ; Acts iii. 19; 2 Thess. i. 7-10. [See in the Bible.'] 

III. f 2 Pet. iii. 11, 14; 2 Cor. v. 10 [See letter d], 11 ; 2 Thess i. 5, 
6,7 ; Lukexxi. 27, 28 ; Rom. viii. 23, 24, 25. 8 Matt. xxiv. 36, 42, 43, 
44. [See in the Bible.'] Mark xiii. 35, 36, 37; Luke xii. 35, 36; 
Rev. xxii. 20. 


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